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Design optimization of grid-connected PV-Hydrogen for energy prosumers considering sector-coupling paradigm: Case study of a university building in Algeria

Mokhtara, Charafeddine; Negrou, Belkhir; Settou, Noureddine; Bouferrouk, Abdessalem; Yao, Yufeng


Charafeddine Mokhtara

Belkhir Negrou

Noureddine Settou

Yufeng Yao
Professor in Aerospace Engineering


Integrating sector coupling technologies into Hydrogen (H2) based hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is becoming a promising way to create energy prosumers, despite the very little research work being done in this largely unexplored field. In this paper, a sector coupling strategy (building and transportation) is developed and applied to a grid-connected PV/battery/H2 HRES, to maximise self-sufficiency for a University campus and to produce power and H2 for driving electric tram in Ouargla, Algeria. A multi-objective size optimization problem is solved as a single objective problem using the ε-constraint method, in which the cost of energy (COE) is defined as the main objective function to be minimized, while both loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and non-renewable usage (NRU) are defined as constraints. Particle swarm optimization and HOMER software are then employed for simulation and optimization purposes. Prior to the two scenarios investigated, a sensitivity study is performed to determine the effects of H2 demand by tram and NRU on the techno-economic feasibility of the proposed system, followed by a new reliability factor introduced in the optimization, namely loss of H2 supply probability (LHSP). The results of the first scenario show that by setting NRUmax = 100%, the system without H2 provides the best solution with COE of 0.016 $/kWh that reaches grid parity and has 13% NRU. However, by setting NRUmax = 1% in the second scenario, an optimized configuration consisting of grid/PV/Electrolyzer/Fuel cell/Storage tank is obtained, which has 0% NRU and COE of 0.1 $/kWh. In the second scenario, it is also observed that an increased number of trams (i.e. increased H2 demands) causes a significant reduction in LHSP, COE, NRU and CO2 emissions. It is thus concluded that the grid/PV combination is the optimal choice for the studied system when considering economic aspects. However, taking into account the growing requirements of future energy systems, grid-connected PV with H2 will be the best solution.


Mokhtara, C., Negrou, B., Settou, N., Bouferrouk, A., & Yao, Y. (in press). Design optimization of grid-connected PV-Hydrogen for energy prosumers considering sector-coupling paradigm: Case study of a university building in Algeria. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 9, 2020
Online Publication Date Oct 31, 2020
Deposit Date Nov 3, 2020
Publicly Available Date Nov 1, 2021
Journal International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Print ISSN 0360-3199
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Fuel Technology; Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; Energy Engineering and Power Technology; Condensed Matter Physics
Public URL