© 2020 The Authors In order to improve the potential of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) as an applicable technology, the main challenge is to engineer practical systems for bioenergy production at larger scales and to test how the prototypes withstand the challenges occurring during the prolonged operation under constant feeding regime with real waste stream. This work presents the performance assessment of low-cost ceramic MFCs in the individual, stacked (modular) and modular cascade (3 modules) configurations during long term operation up to 19 months, utilising neat human urine as feedstock. During 1 year, the performance of the individual MFC units reached up to 1.56 mW (22.3 W/m3), exhibiting only 20% power loss on day 350 which was significantly smaller in comparison to conventional proton or cation exchange membranes. The stack module comprising 22 MFCs reached up to 21.4 mW (11.9 W/m3) showing power recovery to the initial output levels after 580 days, whereas the 3-module cascade reached up to 75 mW (13.9 W/m3) of power, showing 20% power loss on day 446. In terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, the 3-module cascade configuration achieved a cumulative reduction of >92%, which is higher than that observed in the single module (56%).
Gajda, I., Obata, O., Jose Salar-Garcia, M., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. A. (2020). Long-term bio-power of ceramic microbial fuel cells in individual and stacked configurations. Bioelectrochemistry, 133, Article 107459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2020.107459