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Anxiety and depression in adolescents with a visible difference: A systematic review and meta-analysis

van Dalen, Marije; Dierckx, Bram; Parsmans, Suzanne; Aendekerk, E. W. C.; Mathijssen, Irene; Koudstaal, Maarten Jan; Timman, Reinier; Williamson, Heidi; Hillegers, Manon; Utens, Elisabeth; Okkerse, Jolanda

Anxiety and depression in adolescents with a visible difference: A systematic review and meta-analysis Thumbnail


Authors

Marije van Dalen

Bram Dierckx

Suzanne Parsmans

E. W. C. Aendekerk

Irene Mathijssen

Maarten Jan Koudstaal

Reinier Timman

Manon Hillegers

Elisabeth Utens

Jolanda Okkerse



Contributors

Jolanda Okkerse
Researcher

Bram Dierckx
Researcher

Marie-Louise Aendekerk
Researcher

Irene Mathijssen
Researcher

Maarten Jan Koudstaal
Researcher

Manon Hillegers
Researcher

Reinier Timman
Researcher

Marije van Dalen
Researcher

Elisabeth Utens
Researcher

Suzanne Pasmans
Researcher

Abstract

Living with a visible difference can entail challenging social situations, associated with psychosocial symptoms. However, it is not clear whether adolescents with a visible difference experience more anxiety and depression than unaffected peers. We aim to determine whether adolescents with a visible difference experience more symptoms of anxiety and depression than unaffected peers. A literature search was conducted in Embase, Medline Ovid, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO Ovid, and Google Scholar. Meta-analyses were done using random-effects models to calculate a standardised mean difference. Analyses for subgroups were used to study causes of visible difference. Eleven studies were identified (n = 1075, weighted mean age = 15.80). Compared to unaffected peers, adolescents with a visible difference experience more symptoms of anxiety (SMD = 0.253, 95 % CI [0.024, 0.482], p = .030), but not depression (SMD = 0.236, 95 % CI [−0.126, 0.599], p = .202). Adolescents with a skin condition did not experience more symptoms of anxiety (SMD = 0.149, 95 % CI [−0.070, 0.369], p = .182) or depression (SMD = 0.090, 95 % CI [−0.082, 0.262], p = .305) when compared to unaffected peers. Overall, more symptoms of anxiety are found in adolescents with a visible difference compared to peers. No differences in anxiety or depression were found for skin differences. Screening for anxiety is recommended.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jun 1, 2020
Journal Body Image
Print ISSN 1740-1445
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 33
Pages 38-46
APA6 Citation van Dalen, M., Dierckx, B., Parsmans, S., Aendekerk, E. W. C., Mathijssen, I., Koudstaal, M. J., …Okkerse, J. (2020). Anxiety and depression in adolescents with a visible difference: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Body Image, 33, 38-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.02.006
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.02.006
Keywords Anxiety/Anxiety disorders; Depression; Visible differences; SAD/social anxiety
Publisher URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1740144519304048?via%3Dihub

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