Using a qualitative and a case study approach, this paper examines the role of the Malaysian universities and their social relationships with government and industry in the light of the statist, laissez-faire and hybrid characters of the Triple Helix model. Most Malaysian universities are positioned within the statist and laissez-faire variants of the Triple Helix model, where the government is invariably a dominant actor. Overall, universities in Malaysia have made efforts to see social relationships evolve; however, there are still issues to be addressed and difficulties to be overcome with respect to such questions as commercialisation and procedures that would need to evolve within the university for transition to hybrid Triple Helix culture to take root.
Razak, A. A., & Saad, M. (2007). The role of universities in the evolution of the Triple Helix culture of innovation network: The case of Malaysia. International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 6(3), 211-225. https://doi.org/10.1386/ijtm.6.3.211_1