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Pervasive human-driven decline of life on Earth points to the need for transformative change

D�az, Sandra; Settele, Josef; Brond�zio, Eduardo S.; Ngo, Hien T.; Agard, John; Arneth, Almut; Balvanera, Patricia; Brauman, Kate A.; Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Chan, Kai M.A.; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Ichii, Kazuhito; Liu, Jianguo; Subramanian, Suneetha M.; Midgley, Guy F.; Miloslavich, Patricia; Moln�r, Zsolt; Obura, David; Pfaff, Alexander; Polasky, Stephen; Purvis, Andy; Razzaque, Jona; Reyers, Belinda; Chowdhury, Rinku Roy; Shin, Yunne Jai; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid; Willis, Katherine J.; Zayas, Cynthia N.


Sandra D�az

Josef Settele

Eduardo S. Brond�zio

Hien T. Ngo

John Agard

Almut Arneth

Patricia Balvanera

Kate A. Brauman

Stuart H.M. Butchart

Kai M.A. Chan

Lucas A. Garibaldi

Kazuhito Ichii

Jianguo Liu

Suneetha M. Subramanian

Guy F. Midgley

Patricia Miloslavich

Zsolt Moln�r

David Obura

Alexander Pfaff

Stephen Polasky

Andy Purvis

Belinda Reyers

Rinku Roy Chowdhury

Yunne Jai Shin

Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers

Katherine J. Willis

Cynthia N. Zayas


The human impact on life on Earth has increased sharply since the 1970s, driven by the demands of a growing population with rising average per capita income. Nature is currently supplying more materials than ever before, but this has come at the high cost of unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, distinctness of local ecological communities, abundance and number of wild species, and the number of local domesticated varieties. Such changes reduce vital benefits that people receive from nature and threaten the quality of life of future generations. Both the benefits of an expanding economy and the costs of reducing nature’s benefits are unequally distributed. The fabric of life on which we all depend—nature and its contributions to people—is unravelling rapidly. Despite the severity of the threats and lack of enough progress in tackling them to date, opportunities exist to change future trajectories through transformative action. Such action must begin immediately, however, and address the root economic, social, and technological causes of nature’s deterioration.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Nov 26, 2019
Online Publication Date Dec 13, 2019
Publication Date Dec 13, 2019
Deposit Date Jan 2, 2020
Publicly Available Date Jan 2, 2020
Journal Science
Print ISSN 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN 1095-9203
Publisher American Association for the Advancement of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 366
Issue 6471
Public URL
Publisher URL


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