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Characteristics of tail pipe (Nitric oxide) and resuspended dust emissions from urban roads – A case study in Delhi city

Dheeraj Alshetty, V.; Kuppili, Sudheer Kumar; Nagendra, S.M. Shiva; Nagendra, Shiva; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan; Sethi, Virendra; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Niraj; Namdeo, Anil; Bell, Margaret; Goodman, Paul; Chatterton, Tim; Barnes, Jo; De Vito, Laura; Longhurst, James

Characteristics of tail pipe (Nitric oxide) and resuspended dust emissions from urban roads – A case study in Delhi city Thumbnail


V. Dheeraj Alshetty

Sudheer Kumar Kuppili

S.M. Shiva Nagendra

Shiva Nagendra

Gitakrishnan Ramadurai

Virendra Sethi

Rakesh Kumar

Niraj Sharma

Anil Namdeo

Margaret Bell

Paul Goodman

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Dr Laura De Vito
Research Fellow in Air Quality Management Resource Centre


Introduction: Personal exposure to elevated vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust emissions at urban roadside leads to carcinogenic health effects, respiratory illness and nervous system disorders. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the exhaust and non-exhaust emissions emitted from selected roads in Delhi city. Methods: Based on the vehicular density per hour and speed, three categories of roads have been considered in the present study: (a) low density road (≤1000 vehicles/hour, V ≥ 10 m/s); (b) medium density road (>1000 vehicles/hour but ≤ 2000 vehicles/hour, V ≥ 7.5 m/s < 10 m/s); and (c) high density road (>2000 vehicles/hour, V < 7.5 m/s). At the selected roads, real-world exhaust emissions were measured using AVL DiTEST 1000 analyser. The silt load measurements were also carried out as per EPA AP-42 methodology at the selected roads. Results: Results indicated real-world NO exhaust emissions of 0.5 g/m3 (2.03 g/km) on high-density roads and 0.23 g/m3 (0.67 g/km) on low and medium density roads. These values were significantly higher than the Bharat Standard (BS) IV (0.25 g/km). The silt load on the different types of roads indicated 3, 25 and 44 g/m2 -day dust deposition on, low, medium and high-density road, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 emission rates were measured using US-EPA AP-42 methodology and were found to be least at low-density roads with values of 0.54 and 2.22 g/VKT (VKT -Vehicle Kilometer Travelled) respectively, and highest for high density roads with values of 12.40 and 51.25 g/VKT respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that both tailpipe (exhaust) and resuspend able road dust (non-exhaust) emissions contributes significantly and deteriorates local air quality. Although there exists emission standards, but there are no enforced regulations for non-exhaust emissions (resuspension of road dust). Hence, there is need to regulate non-exhaust emissions on urban roads.


Dheeraj Alshetty, V., Kuppili, S. K., Nagendra, . S. S., Ramadurai, G., Sethi, V., Kumar, R., …Longhurst, J. (2020). Characteristics of tail pipe (Nitric oxide) and resuspended dust emissions from urban roads – A case study in Delhi city. Journal of Transport and Health, 17,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 17, 2019
Online Publication Date Sep 24, 2019
Publication Date Jun 1, 2020
Deposit Date Nov 13, 2019
Publicly Available Date Mar 25, 2021
Journal Journal of Transport and Health
Print ISSN 2214-1405
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 17
Article Number 100653
Keywords Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health; Health Policy; Pollution; Safety Research; Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality; Transportation
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