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Environmental assessment of cement production with added graphene

Tarpani, Raphael Ricardo Zepon; Yunusa-Kaltungo, Akilu; Su, Meini; Manu, Patrick; Cheung, Clara Man; Watson, Michael; Ladislaus, Paul; Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro

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Raphael Ricardo Zepon Tarpani

Akilu Yunusa-Kaltungo

Meini Su

Patrick Manu
Professor of Innovative Construction and Project Management

Clara Man Cheung

Michael Watson

Paul Ladislaus

Alejandro Gallego-Schmid


Cement production significantly contributes to climate change, necessitating alternatives to mitigate the environmental impacts of this essential construction material. This study evaluates 18 environmental impacts of producing Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Graphene (Gr) using life cycle assessment (LCA). Additionally, we explore whether mixing OPC and Gr can lower the life cycle environmental impacts of the final product (OPCGr). Our results show that OPC production in the United Kingdom generates 775 kg CO2 eq./t, 57% only from geogenic CO2 emissions. Gr production via electrochemical exfoliation in Australia results in 121,000-143,000 kg CO2 eq./t, primarily due to electricity generation. Using hydro and nuclear power (e.g., in Brazil and France) can sharply reduce these impacts (global warming potential in the range of 11,000-35,000 kg CO2 eq./t). Adding 0.02 wt% of Gr in powder form (Grpowder) from Australia to the OPC and assuming a 16.5% reduction in its usage due to increased strength, results in 674 kg CO2 eq./t OPCGr (a 13% reduction). However, some impact categories like marine eutrophication and freshwater ecotoxicity potentials increase sharply (> 28%). Using Grpowder from Brazil and France further reduces the OPCGr global warming potential and the overall environmental footprint.


Tarpani, R. R. Z., Yunusa-Kaltungo, A., Su, M., Manu, P., Cheung, C. M., Watson, M., …Gallego-Schmid, A. (2024). Environmental assessment of cement production with added graphene. Cleaner Environmental Systems, 14, Article 100206.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 27, 2024
Online Publication Date Jun 28, 2024
Publication Date Sep 1, 2024
Deposit Date Jun 28, 2024
Publicly Available Date Jul 1, 2024
Journal Cleaner Environmental Systems
Electronic ISSN 2666-7894
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Article Number 100206
Public URL


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