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Passenger experiences onboard the Mi-Link autonomous bus services

Adeel, Muhammad; Gangoiti, Xabier; Clark, Ben; Parkhurst, Graham

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Muhammad Adeel
Research Fellow in Transport Analysis

Xabier Gangoiti

Ben Clark
Associate Professor of Transport Planning and Engineering


The MultiCAV research and development project, co-funded by Innovate UK and the Centre for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CCAV), was established to deliver sustainable transport services in a ‘Mobility as a Service’ environment. The centrepiece of the project was a series of three phases of electric autonomous bus service trials, first operating on public roads within Milton Park Technology and Science Park, Didcot (Oxfordshire) and later linking to Didcot Parkway railway station. The demonstration services took place in 2023 and were branded to the public as part of the Mi-Link suite of transport services. The project was conducted by a consortium which brought together First Bus as lead, Milton Park, Oxfordshire County Council, Nova Modus, Fusion Processing, Zipabout, and the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol). As part of a wide programme of research, UWE Bristol undertook a questionnaire-based survey and post-ride interviews with people who had ridden on the electric autonomous bus services to understand their experiences and perceptions of this novel transport technology. It was found that perceptions that the service was safe were associated with there being a human operator onboard. The electric vehicle was perceived as quieter than other buses, and the autonomous driving system was overall rated to be as good or better than a human (although it was also noted that human intervention was needed). 97% percent of questionnaire respondents confirmed that they would use the service again.


Adeel, M., Gangoiti, X., Clark, B., & Parkhurst, G. (2024). Passenger experiences onboard the Mi-Link autonomous bus services. Bristol: Innovate UK / Centre for Connected Automated Vehicles

Report Type Project Report
Online Publication Date Mar 27, 2024
Publication Date Mar 27, 2024
Deposit Date Apr 15, 2024
Publicly Available Date Apr 15, 2024
Keywords Automated Bus Services, User Experience, Autonomous Vehicles, Public Transport, Technology Acceptance
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Passenger experiences onboard the Mi-Link autonomous bus services (1.2 Mb)

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