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Learning in ensembles of proteinoid microspheres

Mougkogiannis, Panagiotis; Adamatzky, Andrew

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Panagiotis Mougkogiannis


Proteinoids are thermal proteins which form microspheres in water in the presence of salt. Ensembles of proteinoid microspheres exhibit passive nonlinear electrical properties and active neuron-like spiking of electrical potential. We propose that various neuromorphic computing architectures can be prototyped from the proteinoid microspheres. A key feature of a neuromorphic system is a learning. Through the use of optical and resistance measurements, we study mechanisms of learning in ensembles of proteinoid microspheres. We analyse 16 types of proteinoids study and their intrinsic morphology and electrical properties. We demonstrate that proteinoids can learn, memorize and habituate, making them a promising candidate for novel computing.


Mougkogiannis, P., & Adamatzky, A. (2023). Learning in ensembles of proteinoid microspheres. Royal Society Open Science, 10(10), Article 230936.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 19, 2023
Online Publication Date Oct 11, 2023
Publication Date Oct 31, 2023
Deposit Date Oct 18, 2023
Publicly Available Date Oct 18, 2023
Journal Royal Society Open Science
Electronic ISSN 2054-5703
Publisher Royal Society, The
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 10
Article Number 230936
Keywords microspheres, proteinoids, thermal proteins, unconventional computing
Public URL


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