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Kombucha electronics: Electronic circuits on kombucha mats

Adamatzky, Andrew; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Phillips, Neil; Chiolerio, Alessandro; D’Angelo, Passquale; Nikolaidou, Anna; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch.

Kombucha electronics: Electronic circuits on kombucha mats Thumbnail


Giuseppe Tarabella

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Dr Neil Phillips
Research Fellow in Fungal Analog Electronics

Alessandro Chiolerio

Passquale D’Angelo

Anna Nikolaidou
Senior Lecturer in Architecture and Design

Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis


A kombucha is a tea and sugar fermented by over sixty kinds of yeasts and bacteria. This symbiotic community produces kombucha mats, which are cellulose-based hydrogels. The kombucha mats can be used as an alternative to animal leather in industry and fashion once they have been dried and cured. Prior to this study, we demonstrated that living kombucha mats display dynamic electrical activity and distinct stimulating responses. For use in organic textiles, cured mats of kombucha are inert. To make kombucha wearables functional, it is necessary to incorporate electrical circuits. We demonstrate that creating electrical conductors on kombucha mats is possible. After repeated bending and stretching, the circuits maintain their functionality. In addition, the abilities and electronic properties of the proposed kombucha, such as being lighter, less expensive, and more flexible than conventional electronic systems, pave the way for their use in a diverse range of applications.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 31, 2023
Online Publication Date Jun 9, 2023
Publication Date Jun 9, 2023
Deposit Date Jun 14, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jun 14, 2023
Journal Scientific Reports
Electronic ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher Nature Research (part of Springer Nature)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 1
Article Number 9367
Pages 9367
Keywords Biomaterials; Materials for devices; Soft materials; Structural materials
Public URL
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Additional Information We are grateful to Geoff Sims for laser cutting of kombucha mats. We thank Ultimaker/MakerBot Technical Support for guidance on optimising print settings with Ultimaker S5. We thank Dr Shengrong Ye (Multi3D) for guidance on 3D printing Electrifi filament


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