Park and ride (P&R) schemes are often promoted as an efficient means of extending the effective catchment of public transport networks into car-dependent areas with low population densities, such as rural districts. However, using P&R typically requires the traveller to have access to a car. As car ownership is often used as an indicator of social inclusion, providing P&R for motorists is not an obvious means of reducing exclusion from travel opportunities. Nonetheless, the present article argues that policies to promote interchange from cars to bus or rail can act as a force for either greater or less social exclusion, depending on who can access the services and what the alternative options would be in the absence of P&R being provided. The conditions under which inclusion is most likely to be promoted are reviewed. Key findings are that P&R facilities should not be developed at the expense of investment in conventional public transport and that the services should not be exclusively aimed at motorists. A particular situation in which motorists on relatively low incomes might benefit from P&R provision is where they would otherwise face high access charges to urban areas, in the form of road tolls or parking fees.
Parkhurst, G. (2003). Social inclusion implications of park-and-ride. Proceedings of the ICE - Municipal Engineer, 156(2), 111-117. https://doi.org/10.1680/muen.2003.156.2.111