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Public toilets: The need for compulsory provision

Greed, Clara

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There is no mandatory requirement for local authorities to provide public toilets. Yet, it is argued, they are a vital component in creating accessible, sustainable and comfortable cities for all. In this paper the reasons for compulsory standards are explained, and the underlying problems of current provision and regulation are investigated. The nature of a spatial toilet strategy in respect of the adequate distribution and location of public toilets is outlined. Changes in the regulatory and organisational aspects of public toilet provision are proposed that would result in a better standard of facilities for twenty-first century needs.


Greed, C. (2004). Public toilets: The need for compulsory provision. Proceedings of the ICE - Municipal Engineer, 157(2), 77-85.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jan 1, 2004
Deposit Date Oct 21, 2014
Publicly Available Date Apr 15, 2016
Journal Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer
Print ISSN 0965-0903
Publisher Thomas Telford
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 157
Issue 2
Pages 77-85
Keywords local authorities, public toilets, local infrastructure, plumbing, sanitary engineering, accessibility, tourism
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Additional Information : ( Permission is granted by ICE Publishing to print one copy for personal use. Any other use of these PDF files is subject to reprint fees.


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