The ramifications of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States (US) have been profound for the Caribbean and Europe. Caribbean states have been adversely affected by the decline in international economic confidence, particularly in regard to the tourism industry. The region's offshore banking sector has also been criticised for its lax regulation and lack of transparency, issues of paramount importance in an era of heightened concern over security and terrorist financing. Indeed across a wide range of matters related to regional and international security, and political and economic good practice, Caribbean countries have been challenged to meet the obligations necessary to survive in a more uncertain international environment. Similarly, European states as well as the European Union (EU) have been forced to recognise and respond to the changed political, economic and strategic situation in the aftermath of 9/11. In this article an evaluation is made as to whether the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 altered the dynamics and nature of the long-standing relationship between the
Caribbean and Europe. In order to do this a number of important issues that underpin the relationship are considered, including regional security and law
enforcement, financial probity, and economic development and diversification. The first part of the article considers the Caribbean's bilateral relationship with
those European states - the United Kingdom (UK), France and the Netherlands - which have particularly close ties with the region, while the second part concentrates on the increasingly important collective relationship between the Caribbean and the EU. A final, and much shorter, section evaluates the EU's relationship with Cuba, which has come under increasing criticism from the US in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
Clegg, P. (2004). Caribbean-european relations and 9/11: Continuity or change?. Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 2(2), 143-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/14794010408656832