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Understanding colourism in the UK: Development and assessment of the everyday colourism scale

Craddock, Nadia; Phoenix, Aisha; White, Paul; Gentili, Caterina; Diedrichs, Phillippa C.; Barlow, Fiona


Nadia Craddock

Aisha Phoenix

Paul White
Professor in Applied Statistics

Caterina Gentili

Fiona Barlow


This paper details the development and psychometric validation of the Everyday Colourism Scale (ECS), a measure designed to capture perceived skin shade prejudice from the ingroup (ethnic peers) and the outgroup (White people). The ECS was adapted from the Everyday Discrimination Scale using existing research, expert reviews, and acceptability interviews. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability and validity analyses were conducted based on responses from 540 people of colour living in the UK. Predictive validity was tested based on data from an additional 201 participants. Results supported a 2-factor model, with good internal and test–retest reliability, and construct validity. Colourism from White people was associated with more frequent experiences of racism, higher internalized colourism, and greater anxiety. Colourism from participants’ ethnic peers was associated with lower self-esteem and perceived social support. Findings suggest the ECS is a promising new tool for assessing perceived colourism among a multi-ethnic UK sample.


Craddock, N., Phoenix, A., White, P., Gentili, C., Diedrichs, P. C., & Barlow, F. (in press). Understanding colourism in the UK: Development and assessment of the everyday colourism scale. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1-36.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 9, 2022
Online Publication Date Dec 9, 2022
Deposit Date Feb 2, 2023
Publicly Available Date Feb 2, 2023
Journal Ethnic and Racial Studies
Print ISSN 0141-9870
Electronic ISSN 1466-4356
Publisher Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Pages 1-36
Keywords Sociology and Political Science, Anthropology, Cultural Studies
Public URL
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