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Development of U-model enhansed nonlinear systems

Liu, Xin

Development of U-model enhansed nonlinear systems Thumbnail


Xin Liu


Nonlinear control system design has been widely recognised as a challenging issue where the key objective is to develop a general model prototype with conciseness, flexibility and manipulability, so that the designed control system can best match the required performance or specifications. As a generic systematic approach, U-model concept appeared in Prof. Quanmin Zhu’s Doctoral thesis, and U-model approach was firstly published in the journal paper titled with ‘U-model based pole placement for nonlinear plants’ in 2002.
The U-model polynomial prototype precisely describes a wide range of smooth nonlinear polynomial models, defined as a controller output u(t-1) based time-varying polynomial models converted from the original nonlinear model. Within this equivalent U-model expression, the first study of U-model based pole placement controller design for nonlinear plants is a simple mapping exercise from ordinary linear and nonlinear difference equations to time-varying polynomials in terms of the plant input u(t-1). The U-model framework realised the concise and applicable design for nonlinear control system by using such linear polynomial control system design approaches.
Since the first publication, the U-model methodology has progressed and evolved over the course of a decade. By using the U-model technique, researchers have proposed many different linear algorithms for the design of control systems for the nonlinear polynomial model including; adaptive control, internal control, sliding mode control, predictive control and neural network control. However, limited research has been concerned with the design and analysis of robust stability and performance of U-model based control systems.
This project firstly proposes a suitable method to analyse the robust stability of the developed U-model based pole placement control systems against uncertainty. The parameter variation is bounded, thus the robust stability margin of the closed loop system can be determined by using LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) based robust stability analysis procedure. U-block model is defined as an input output linear closed loop model with pole assignor converted from the U-model based control system. With the bridge of U-model approach, it connects the linear state space design approach with the nonlinear polynomial model. Therefore, LMI based linear robust controller design approaches are able to design enhanced robust control system within the U-block model structure.
With such development, the first stage U-model methodology provides concise and flexible solutions for complex problems, where linear controller design methodologies are directly applied to nonlinear polynomial plant-based control system design. The next milestone work expands the U-model technique into state space control systems to establish the new framework, defined as the U-state space model, providing a generic prototype for the simplification of nonlinear state space design approaches.
The U-state space model is first described as a controller output u(t-1) based time-varying state equations, which is equivalent to the original linear/nonlinear state space models after conversion. Then, a basic idea of corresponding U-state feedback control system design method is proposed based on the U-model principle. The linear state space feedback control design approach is employed to nonlinear plants described in state space realisation under U-state space structure. The desired state vectors defined as xd(t), are determined by closed loop performance (such as pole placement) or designer specifications (such as LQR). Then the desired state vectors substitute the desired state vectors into original state space equations (regarded as next time state variable xd(t) = x(t) ). Therefore, the controller output u(t-1) can be obtained from one of the roots of a root-solving iterative algorithm.
A quad-rotor rotorcraft dynamic model and inverted pendulum system are introduced to verify the U-state space control system design approach for MIMO/SIMO system. The linear design approach is used to determine the closed loop state equation, then the controller output can be obtained from root solver. Numerical examples and case studies are employed in this study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.


Liu, X. Development of U-model enhansed nonlinear systems. (Thesis). University of the West of England. Retrieved from

Thesis Type Thesis
Publicly Available Date Jun 6, 2019
Keywords U-model, Nonlinear control, Robust control, Feedback control, Quad-rotor control systems, Inverted pendulum control systems, U-state space model, U-block model
Public URL
Award Date Mar 14, 2019


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