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Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks (2011)
Journal Article
Holley, J., Jahan, I., De Lacy Costello, B., Bull, L., & Adamatzky, A. (2011). Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks. Physical Review E, 84(5), 056110. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.84.056110

Excitation waves on a subexcitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) substrate can be manipulated by chemical variations in the substrate and by interactions with other waves. Symbolic assignment and interpretation of wave dynamics can be used to perform log... Read More about Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks.

On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., Holley, J., Bull, L., & De Lacy Costello, B. (2011). On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 44(10), 779-790. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2011.03.010

We introduce results of computer experiments on information processing in a hexagonal array of vesicles filled with Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) solution in a sub-excitable mode. We represent values of Boolean variables by excitation wave-fragments and... Read More about On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium.

Towards a mapping of modern AIS and LCS (2011)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2011). Towards a mapping of modern AIS and LCS. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 6825 LNCS, 371-382. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22371-6_32

For many years correlations between aspects of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) and Learning Classifier Systems (LCS) have been highlighted. However, neither field appears to have benefitted from such work not least since the differences between the t... Read More about Towards a mapping of modern AIS and LCS.

Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., Holley, J., Gorecki, J., & Bull, L. (2011). Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 44(7), 480-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2011.01.016

Irregular arrangements of vesicles filled with excitable and precipitating chemical systems are imitated by Voronoi automata - finite-state machines defined on a planar Voronoi diagram. Every Voronoi cell takes four states: resting, excited, refracto... Read More about Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata.

Evolving spiking networks with variable memristors (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Howard, G. D., Gale, E., Bull, L., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, June). Evolving spiking networks with variable memristors. Paper presented at 13th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation

Arithmetic dynamical genetic programming in the XCSF learning classifier system (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Preen, R., & Bull, L. (2011, June). Arithmetic dynamical genetic programming in the XCSF learning classifier system. Paper presented at IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), 2011

This paper presents results from an investigation into using a continuous-valued dynamical system representation within the XCSF Learning Classifier System. In particular, dynamical arithmetic genetic networks are used to represent the traditional... Read More about Arithmetic dynamical genetic programming in the XCSF learning classifier system.

Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Howard, G. D., Gale, E., Bull, L., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, April). Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses. Paper presented at IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life (ALIFE), 2011

This paper presents a spiking neuro-evolutionary system which implements memristors as neuromodulatory connections, ie whose weights can vary during a trial. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and a constructionist app... Read More about Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses.

Applications of Kauffman’s coevolutionary NKCS model to management and organization studies (2011)
Book Chapter
Vidgen, R., & Bull, L. (2011). Applications of Kauffman’s coevolutionary NKCS model to management and organization studies. In P. Allen, S. Maguire, & B. McKelvey (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Complexity and Management, 201-219. SAGE Publications Limited

A number of studies have used tuneable, abstract models of organism evolution like Kauffman's (1993) NK model to capture and explore aspects of organizations and their adaptation in the business environment (eg Levinthal, 1997; Rivkin, 2000; Lenox... Read More about Applications of Kauffman’s coevolutionary NKCS model to management and organization studies.

Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles (2011)
Journal Article
Holley, J., Adamatzky, A., Bull, L., De Lacy Costello, B., & Jahan, I. (2011). Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles. Nano Communication Networks, 2(1), 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nancom.2011.02.002

We present both simulated and partial empirical evidences for the computational utility of many connected vesicle analogues of an encapsulated nonlinear chemical processing medium. By connecting small vesicles containing a solution of sub-excitable B... Read More about Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles.

Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., Bull, L., & Holley, J. (2011). Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media. Israel Journal of Chemistry, 51(1), 56-66. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijch.201000046

A sub-excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium exhibits localized travelling excitations (in contrast to an excitable medium exhibiting target or spiral waves). Initially assymetric perturbations give birth to excitation wave-fragments. The shape and ve... Read More about Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media.

On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., & Bull, L. (2011). On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 21(07), 1977-1986. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218127411029574

In a subexcitable light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical medium an asymmetric disturbance causes the formation of localized traveling wave-fragments. Under the right conditions these wave-fragments can conserve their shape and velocity ve... Read More about On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium.