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Computing with liquid crystal fingers: Models of geometric and logical computation (2011)
Journal Article
Younger, D., Matranga, M. A., Costello, B. D. L., Kitson, S., Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2011). Computing with liquid crystal fingers: Models of geometric and logical computation. Physical Review E, 84(6), https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.84.061702

When a voltage is applied across a thin layer of cholesteric liquid crystal, fingers of cholesteric alignment can form and propagate in the layer. In computer simulation, based on experimental laboratory results, we demonstrate that these cholesteric... Read More about Computing with liquid crystal fingers: Models of geometric and logical computation.

Comparison of ant-inspired gatherer allocation approaches using memristor-based environmental models (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Gale, E., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, December). Comparison of ant-inspired gatherer allocation approaches using memristor-based environmental models. Paper presented at Bioadcom 2011 Workshop on Bio-inspired Approaches to Advanced Computing and Communications (BioAdcom2011)

Memristors are used to compare three gathering techniques in an already-mapped environment where resource locations are known. The All Site model, which apportions gatherers based on the modeled memristance of that path, proves to be good at increasi... Read More about Comparison of ant-inspired gatherer allocation approaches using memristor-based environmental models.

Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks (2011)
Journal Article
Holley, J., Jahan, I., De Lacy Costello, B., Bull, L., & Adamatzky, A. (2011). Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks. Physical Review E, 84(5), 056110. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.84.056110

Excitation waves on a subexcitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) substrate can be manipulated by chemical variations in the substrate and by interactions with other waves. Symbolic assignment and interpretation of wave dynamics can be used to perform log... Read More about Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks.

Neuromorphic computing with memristors: Preliminary experimental results (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Gale, E., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, November). Neuromorphic computing with memristors: Preliminary experimental results. Poster presented at Building Bridges to Build Brains

Individual memristors have been observed demonstrating neuron-like spiking patterns. It has been shown elsewhere that memristors provide superior modelling for neurons then the Hodgkin-Huxley model. Due to these results we expect memristors to be e... Read More about Neuromorphic computing with memristors: Preliminary experimental results.

On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., Holley, J., Bull, L., & De Lacy Costello, B. (2011). On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 44(10), 779-790. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2011.03.010

We introduce results of computer experiments on information processing in a hexagonal array of vesicles filled with Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) solution in a sub-excitable mode. We represent values of Boolean variables by excitation wave-fragments and... Read More about On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium.

Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., Holley, J., Gorecki, J., & Bull, L. (2011). Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 44(7), 480-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2011.01.016

Irregular arrangements of vesicles filled with excitable and precipitating chemical systems are imitated by Voronoi automata - finite-state machines defined on a planar Voronoi diagram. Every Voronoi cell takes four states: resting, excited, refracto... Read More about Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata.

Aluminium electrodes effect the operation of titanium oxide sol-gel memristors (2011)
Working Paper
Gale, E., Pearson, D., Kitson, S., Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. Aluminium electrodes effect the operation of titanium oxide sol-gel memristors

By a comparison between memristors made with aluminium and gold electrodes, this letter demonstrates that aluminium electrodes are an essential component of the TiO$_2$ sol-gel flexible memristor . Both slow varying `analogue' and sudden switching `d... Read More about Aluminium electrodes effect the operation of titanium oxide sol-gel memristors.

Evolving spiking networks with variable memristors (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Howard, G. D., Gale, E., Bull, L., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, June). Evolving spiking networks with variable memristors. Paper presented at 13th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation

Sounds synthesis with slime mould of Physarum Polycephalum (2011)
Journal Article
Miranda, E. R., Miranda, E., Adamatzky, A., & Jones, J. (2011). Sounds synthesis with slime mould of Physarum Polycephalum. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 8(2), 107-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672-6529%2811%2960016-4

This paper introduces a novel application of bionic engineering: a bionic musical instrument using Physarum polycephalum. Physarum polycephalum is a huge single cell with thousands of nuclei, which behaves like a giant amoeba. During its foraging beh... Read More about Sounds synthesis with slime mould of Physarum Polycephalum.

On electrical correlates of physarum polycephalum spatial activity: Can we see physarum machine in the dark? (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., & Jones, J. (2011). On electrical correlates of physarum polycephalum spatial activity: Can we see physarum machine in the dark?. Biophysical Reviews and Letters, 6(1-2), 29-57. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1793048011001257

Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye, which spans sources of nutrients with its protoplasmic network. In a very simple experimental setup we recorded electric potential of the propagating plasmodium. We discover... Read More about On electrical correlates of physarum polycephalum spatial activity: Can we see physarum machine in the dark?.

On attraction of slime mould Physarum polycephalum to plants with sedative properties (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A. (2011). On attraction of slime mould Physarum polycephalum to plants with sedative properties. https://doi.org/10.1038/npre.2011.5985.1

A plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large single cell with many nuclei. Presented to a configuration of attracting and repelling stimuli a plasmodium optimizes its growth pattern and spans the attractants, while avoiding... Read More about On attraction of slime mould Physarum polycephalum to plants with sedative properties.

Computer scientists build cellular automaton supercollider (2011)
Journal Article
Martinez, G. J., & Adamatzky, A. (2011). Computer scientists build cellular automaton supercollider. Technology review,

A virtual accelerator that smashes together glider-like particles inside a cellular automaton can perform computations, say researchers.

Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Howard, G. D., Gale, E., Bull, L., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, April). Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses. Paper presented at IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life (ALIFE), 2011

This paper presents a spiking neuro-evolutionary system which implements memristors as neuromodulatory connections, ie whose weights can vary during a trial. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and a constructionist app... Read More about Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses.

Cellular automaton supercolliders (2011)
Journal Article
Martínez, G. J., Adamatzky, A., Stephens, C. R., & Hoeflich, A. F. (2011). Cellular automaton supercolliders. International Journal of Modern Physics C, 22(4), 419-439. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0129183111016348

Gliders in one-dimensional cellular automata are compact groups of non-quiescent and non-ether patterns (ether represents a periodic background) translating along automaton lattice. They are cellular automaton analogous of localizations or quasi-loca... Read More about Cellular automaton supercolliders.

Towards constructing one-bit binary adder in excitable chemical medium (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., Lacy Costello, B. D., de Lacy Costello, B., Adamatzky, A., Jahan, I., & Zhang, L. (2011). Towards constructing one-bit binary adder in excitable chemical medium. Chemical Physics, 381(1-3), 88-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphys.2011.01.014

The light-sensitive modification (ruthenium catalysed) of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction exhibits various excitability regimes depending on the level of illumination. Within a narrow range of applied illumination levels the medium is in a sub-exci... Read More about Towards constructing one-bit binary adder in excitable chemical medium.

Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles (2011)
Journal Article
Holley, J., Adamatzky, A., Bull, L., De Lacy Costello, B., & Jahan, I. (2011). Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles. Nano Communication Networks, 2(1), 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nancom.2011.02.002

We present both simulated and partial empirical evidences for the computational utility of many connected vesicle analogues of an encapsulated nonlinear chemical processing medium. By connecting small vesicles containing a solution of sub-excitable B... Read More about Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles.

On the internalisation, intraplasmodial carriage and excretion of metallic nanoparticles in the slime mould, Physarum polycephalum (2011)
Journal Article
Mayne, R., Patton, D., Costello, B. D. L., Adamatzky, A., & Patton, R. C. (2011). On the internalisation, intraplasmodial carriage and excretion of metallic nanoparticles in the slime mould, Physarum polycephalum. International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation, 3(3), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijnmc.2011070101

The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a large single cell visible with the naked eye. When inoculated on a substrate with attractants and repellents the plasmodium develops optimal networks of protoplasmic tubes which span sites of attractants (... Read More about On the internalisation, intraplasmodial carriage and excretion of metallic nanoparticles in the slime mould, Physarum polycephalum.

Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., Bull, L., & Holley, J. (2011). Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media. Israel Journal of Chemistry, 51(1), 56-66. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijch.201000046

A sub-excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium exhibits localized travelling excitations (in contrast to an excitable medium exhibiting target or spiral waves). Initially assymetric perturbations give birth to excitation wave-fragments. The shape and ve... Read More about Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media.

On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., & Bull, L. (2011). On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 21(07), 1977-1986. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218127411029574

In a subexcitable light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical medium an asymmetric disturbance causes the formation of localized traveling wave-fragments. Under the right conditions these wave-fragments can conserve their shape and velocity ve... Read More about On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium.

Towards physarum robots (2011)
Book Chapter
Jones, J., Tsuda, S., & Adamatzky, A. (2011). Towards physarum robots. In Y. Meng, & Y. Jin (Eds.), Bio-Inspired Self-Organizing Robotic Systems, 215-251. Springer-Verlag