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Research Repository

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Real-time recovery of moving 3D faces for emerging applications (2013)
Journal Article
Molleda, J., Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., Broadbent, L., Emrith, K., Emrith, K., …Molleda, J. (2013). Real-time recovery of moving 3D faces for emerging applications. Computers in Industry, 64(9), 1390-1398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2013.03.011

Existing face imaging systems are not suitable to meet the face representation and recognition demands for emerging applications in areas such as interactive gaming, enhanced learning environments and directed advertising. This is mainly due to the p... Read More about Real-time recovery of moving 3D faces for emerging applications.

Incorporating clinical metadata with digital image features for automated identification of cutaneous melanoma (2013)
Journal Article
Liu, Z., Sun, J., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2013). Incorporating clinical metadata with digital image features for automated identification of cutaneous melanoma. British Journal of Dermatology,

Abstract Background Computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) of malignant melanoma (MM) has been advocated to help clinicians in achieving a more objective and reliable assessment. However, conventional CAD systems only examine the features extracted from... Read More about Incorporating clinical metadata with digital image features for automated identification of cutaneous melanoma.

An improved 3D imaging system for dimensional quality inspection of rolled products in the metal industry (2013)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Espina, A., Bulnes, F. G., García, D. F., Usamentiaga, R., Molleda, J., …Smith, L. (2013). An improved 3D imaging system for dimensional quality inspection of rolled products in the metal industry. Computers in Industry, 64(9), 1186-1200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2013.05.002

Measurement, inspection and quality control in industry have benefited from 3D techniques for imaging and visualization in recent years. The development of machine vision devices at decreased costs, as well as their miniaturization and integration in... Read More about An improved 3D imaging system for dimensional quality inspection of rolled products in the metal industry.

In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric stereo in the presence of interreflections (2013)
Journal Article
Sohaib, A., Farooq, A., Atkinson, G., Smith, L., Smith, M., & Warr, R. (2013). In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric
stereo in the presence of interreflections. Journal of the Optical Society of America A,

This paper proposes and describes an implementation of a novel photometric stereo based technique for in vivo assessment of three-dimensional (3D) skin topography in the presence of interreflections. The proposed method illuminates skin with red, gr... Read More about In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric stereo in the presence of interreflections.

Recovering skin reflectance and geometry for diagnosis of melanoma (2013)
Book Chapter
Sun, J., Liu, Z., Ding, Y., & Smith, M. (2013). Recovering skin reflectance and geometry for diagnosis of melanoma. In J. Scharcanski, & E. Celebi (Eds.), Computer Vision Techniques for the Diagnosis of Skin Cancer, 243-265. Springer

In order to achieve an early detection of skin cancers, various state-of-the-art imaging modalities have been investigated from optical, impedance, biomechanical and physiological perspectives to find out the potential biomarkers. However multilayere... Read More about Recovering skin reflectance and geometry for diagnosis of melanoma.

Dynamic deflectometry: A novel approach for the on-line reconstruction of specular freeform surfaces (2012)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Atkinson, G. A., Wedowski, R. D., Atkinson, G., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2012). Dynamic deflectometry: A novel approach for the on-line reconstruction of specular freeform surfaces. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 50(12), 1765-1778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2012.07.003

The dynamic inspection and reverse engineering of specular freeform surfaces is a challenge so far largely unsolved. Products produced in high quantities in industrial environments are still inspected manually which is labour intensive, expensive, mo... Read More about Dynamic deflectometry: A novel approach for the on-line reconstruction of specular freeform surfaces.

Combinatorial photometric stereo and its application in 3D modeling of melanoma (2012)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Zhou, Y., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Warr, R. (2012). Combinatorial photometric stereo and its application in 3D modeling of melanoma. Machine Vision and Applications, 23(5), 1029-1045. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00138-011-0356-6

This article concerns a new type of photometric stereo algorithm for which outliers such as highlights and shadows, including attached and cast shadow, are mixed with Lambertian data. The underlying motivation behind this algorithm is very simple: an... Read More about Combinatorial photometric stereo and its application in 3D modeling of melanoma.

Innovative machine vision technique for 2D/3D complex and irregular surfaces modelling (2012)
Journal Article
complex and irregular surfaces modelling. International Journal of Computer Science Issues, 9(5), 113-121

Abstract—This study propose and demonstrates a novel technique incorporating multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks for feature extraction with Photometric stereo based image capture techniques for the analysis of complex and irregular 2D profil... Read More about Innovative machine vision technique for 2D/3D complex and irregular surfaces modelling.

A robust multi-scale integration method to obtain the depth from gradient maps (2012)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Atkinson, G. A., Leitão, H. C., Saracchini, R. F., Saracchini, R., Stolfi, J., …Smith, M. (2012). A robust multi-scale integration method to obtain the depth from gradient maps. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 116(8), 882-895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cviu.2012.03.006

We describe a robust method for the recovery of the depth map (or height map) from a gradient map (or normal map) of a scene, such as would be obtained by photometric stereo or interferometry. Our method allows for uncertain or missing samples, which... Read More about A robust multi-scale integration method to obtain the depth from gradient maps.

Distribution quantification on dermoscopy images for computer-Assisted diagnosis of cutaneous melanomas (2012)
Journal Article
Liu, Z., Sun, J., Smith, L., Smith, M., & Warr, R. (2012). Distribution quantification on dermoscopy images for computer-Assisted diagnosis of cutaneous melanomas. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 50(5), 503-513. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-012-0895-7

Computerised analysis on skin lesion images has been reported to be helpful in achieving objective and reproducible diagnosis of melanoma. In particular, asymmetry in shape, colour and structure reflects the irregular growth of melanin under the skin... Read More about Distribution quantification on dermoscopy images for computer-Assisted diagnosis of cutaneous melanomas.

Branch cutting algorithm for unwrapping photoelastic phase map with isotropic point (2012)
Journal Article
Lao, F. Y., Liang, H. R., Huang, M. J., Zhang, Y. T., Wedowski, R., Atkinson, G., …Smith, L. (2012). Branch cutting algorithm for unwrapping photoelastic phase map with isotropic point. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 50(5), 619-631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2011.10.013

A branch cutting algorithm is proposed to solve the wrapped isoclinic causing isochromatic discontinuity and thus to decouple the isoclinicisochromatic interaction of photoelastic phase maps. Rather than pixel by pixel, the branch-cutting isoclinic w... Read More about Branch cutting algorithm for unwrapping photoelastic phase map with isotropic point.

Unsupervised sub-segmentation for pigmented skin lesions (2012)
Journal Article
Liu, Z., Sun, J., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Warr, R. (2012). Unsupervised sub-segmentation for pigmented skin lesions. Skin Research and Technology, 18(1), 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0846.2011.00534.x

Background: Early identification of malignant melanoma with the surgical removal of thin lesions is the most effective treatment for skin cancers. A computer-aided diagnostic system assists to improve the diagnostic accuracy, where segmenting lesion... Read More about Unsupervised sub-segmentation for pigmented skin lesions.

Face recognition in 2D and 2.5D using ridgelets and photometric stereo (2012)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Atkinson, G. A., Kautkar, S. N., Kautkar, S., Atkinson, G., & Smith, M. (2012). Face recognition in 2D and 2.5D using ridgelets and photometric stereo. Pattern Recognition, 45(9), 3317-3327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2012.03.007

A new technique for face recognition - Ridgefaces - is presented. The method combines the well-known Fisherface method with the ridgelet transform and high-speed Photometric Stereo (PS). The paper first derives ridgelet projections for 2D/2.5D face i... Read More about Face recognition in 2D and 2.5D using ridgelets and photometric stereo.

Multi-scale integration of slope data on an irregular mesh (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Saracchini, R., Stolfi, J., Leitão, H., Atkinson, G., & Smith, M. (2011, November). Multi-scale integration of slope data on an irregular mesh. Paper presented at Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology, Gwangju, South Korea, 2011

Biological indexes based reflectional asymmetry for classifying cutaneous lesions (2011)
Journal Article
Liu, Z., Smith, L., Sun, J., Smith, M., & Warr, R. (2011). Biological indexes based reflectional asymmetry for classifying cutaneous lesions. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 6893 LNCS(PART 3), 124-132. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-23626-6_16

This paper proposes a novel reflectional asymmetry descriptor to quantize the asymmetry of the cutaneous lesions for the discrimination of malignant melanoma from benign nevi. A pigmentation elevation model of the biological indexes is first construc... Read More about Biological indexes based reflectional asymmetry for classifying cutaneous lesions.

Twins 3D face recognition challenge (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Vijayan, V., Bowyer, K. W., Flynn, P. J., Huang, D. S., Chen, L., Hansen, M. F., …Kakadiaris, I. (2011, October). Twins 3D face recognition challenge. Paper presented at International Joint Conference on Biometrics

Existing 3D face recognition algorithms have achieved high enough performances against public datasets like FRGC v2, that it is difficult to achieve further significant increases in recognition performance. However, the 3D TEC dataset is a more chall... Read More about Twins 3D face recognition challenge.

Psychologically inspired dimensionality reduction for 2D and 3D Face Recognition (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Hansen, M. F., Atkinson, G., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2011, September). Psychologically inspired dimensionality reduction for 2D and 3D Face Recognition. Paper presented at British Machine Vision Conference 2011

We present a number of related novel methods for reducing the dimensionality of data for the purposes of 2D and 3D face recognition. Results from psychology show that humans are capable of very good recognition of low resolution images and caricature... Read More about Psychologically inspired dimensionality reduction for 2D and 3D Face Recognition.