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High-sensitivity analysis of polarization by surface reflection (2018)
Journal Article
Ernst, J. D., Atkinson, G. A., Atkinson, G., & Ernst, J. (2018). High-sensitivity analysis of polarization by surface reflection. Machine Vision and Applications, 29(7), 1171-1189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00138-018-0962-7

© 2018, The Author(s). The exploitation of polarization information in the field of computer vision has become progressively more popular during the last few decades. This is primarily due to (1) the fact that polarization is a source of mostly untap... Read More about High-sensitivity analysis of polarization by surface reflection.

Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments (2018)
Journal Article
Tarrit, K., Molleda, J., Atkinson, G. A., Smith, M. L., Wright, G. C., & Gaal, P. (2018). Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments. Computers in Industry, 98, 153-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.03.005

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Visual surveillance is of paramount importance in public spaces and especially in train and metro platforms which are particularly susceptible to many types of crime from petty theft to terrorist activity. Image resolution of vis... Read More about Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments.

Polarisation photometric stereo (2017)
Journal Article
Atkinson, G. A., & Atkinson, G. (2017). Polarisation photometric stereo. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 160, 158-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cviu.2017.04.014

© 2017 This paper concerns a novel approach to fuse two-source photometric stereo (PS) data with polarisation information for complete surface normal recovery for smooth or slightly rough surfaces. PS is a well-established method but is limited in ap... Read More about Polarisation photometric stereo.

Two-source surface reconstruction using polarisation (2017)
Journal Article
Atkinson, G. A., & Atkinson, G. (2017). Two-source surface reconstruction using polarisation. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 10270, 123-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59129-2_11

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017. Polarisation vision aims to capture and interpret the polarisation state of incoming light as part of a computer vision system. In this paper, polarisation information is fused with two-source photometric... Read More about Two-source surface reconstruction using polarisation.

BRDF estimation for faces from a sparse dataset using a neural network (2013)
Presentation / Conference
Hansen, M. F., Atkinson, G., & Smith, M. (2013, August). BRDF estimation for faces from a sparse dataset using a neural network. Paper presented at Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, CAIP 2013

We present a novel �ve source near-infrared photometric stereo 3D face capture device. The accuracy of the system is demonstrated by a comparison with ground truth from a commercial 3D scanner. We also use the data from the �ve captured images to mo... Read More about BRDF estimation for faces from a sparse dataset using a neural network.

Face recognition and verification using photometric stereo: The photoface database and a comprehensive evaluation (2013)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Hansen, M. F., Atkinson, G. A., Zafeiriou, S., Atkinson, G., …Smith, L. (2013). Face recognition and verification using photometric stereo: The photoface database and a comprehensive evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 8(1), 121-135. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIFS.2012.2224109

This paper presents a new database suitable for both 2-D and 3-D face recognition based on photometric stereo (PS): the Photoface database. The database was collected using a custom-made four-source PS device designed to enable data capture with mini... Read More about Face recognition and verification using photometric stereo: The photoface database and a comprehensive evaluation.

Robust 3D face capture using example-based photometric stereo (2013)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Atkinson, G. A., Leitão, H. C., Saracchini, R. F., Saracchini, R., Stolfi, J., …Smith, M. (2013). Robust 3D face capture using example-based photometric stereo. Computers in Industry, 64(9), 1399-1410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2013.04.003

We show that using example-based photometric stereo, it is possible to achieve realistic reconstructions of the human face. The method can handle non-Lambertian reflectance and attached shadows after a simple calibration step. We use spherical harmon... Read More about Robust 3D face capture using example-based photometric stereo.

In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric stereo in the presence of interreflections (2013)
Journal Article
Sohaib, A., Farooq, A., Atkinson, G., Smith, L., Smith, M., & Warr, R. (2013). In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric
stereo in the presence of interreflections. Journal of the Optical Society of America A,

This paper proposes and describes an implementation of a novel photometric stereo based technique for in vivo assessment of three-dimensional (3D) skin topography in the presence of interreflections. The proposed method illuminates skin with red, gr... Read More about In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric stereo in the presence of interreflections.

Dynamic deflectometry: A novel approach for the on-line reconstruction of specular freeform surfaces (2012)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Atkinson, G. A., Wedowski, R. D., Atkinson, G., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2012). Dynamic deflectometry: A novel approach for the on-line reconstruction of specular freeform surfaces. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 50(12), 1765-1778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2012.07.003

The dynamic inspection and reverse engineering of specular freeform surfaces is a challenge so far largely unsolved. Products produced in high quantities in industrial environments are still inspected manually which is labour intensive, expensive, mo... Read More about Dynamic deflectometry: A novel approach for the on-line reconstruction of specular freeform surfaces.

A robust multi-scale integration method to obtain the depth from gradient maps (2012)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Atkinson, G. A., Leitão, H. C., Saracchini, R. F., Saracchini, R., Stolfi, J., …Smith, M. (2012). A robust multi-scale integration method to obtain the depth from gradient maps. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 116(8), 882-895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cviu.2012.03.006

We describe a robust method for the recovery of the depth map (or height map) from a gradient map (or normal map) of a scene, such as would be obtained by photometric stereo or interferometry. Our method allows for uncertain or missing samples, which... Read More about A robust multi-scale integration method to obtain the depth from gradient maps.

Branch cutting algorithm for unwrapping photoelastic phase map with isotropic point (2012)
Journal Article
Lao, F. Y., Liang, H. R., Huang, M. J., Zhang, Y. T., Wedowski, R., Atkinson, G., …Smith, L. (2012). Branch cutting algorithm for unwrapping photoelastic phase map with isotropic point. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 50(5), 619-631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2011.10.013

A branch cutting algorithm is proposed to solve the wrapped isoclinic causing isochromatic discontinuity and thus to decouple the isoclinicisochromatic interaction of photoelastic phase maps. Rather than pixel by pixel, the branch-cutting isoclinic w... Read More about Branch cutting algorithm for unwrapping photoelastic phase map with isotropic point.

Face recognition in 2D and 2.5D using ridgelets and photometric stereo (2012)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Atkinson, G. A., Kautkar, S. N., Kautkar, S., Atkinson, G., & Smith, M. (2012). Face recognition in 2D and 2.5D using ridgelets and photometric stereo. Pattern Recognition, 45(9), 3317-3327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2012.03.007

A new technique for face recognition - Ridgefaces - is presented. The method combines the well-known Fisherface method with the ridgelet transform and high-speed Photometric Stereo (PS). The paper first derives ridgelet projections for 2D/2.5D face i... Read More about Face recognition in 2D and 2.5D using ridgelets and photometric stereo.

Multi-scale integration of slope data on an irregular mesh (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Saracchini, R., Stolfi, J., Leitão, H., Atkinson, G., & Smith, M. (2011, November). Multi-scale integration of slope data on an irregular mesh. Paper presented at Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology, Gwangju, South Korea, 2011

Psychologically inspired dimensionality reduction for 2D and 3D Face Recognition (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Hansen, M. F., Atkinson, G., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2011, September). Psychologically inspired dimensionality reduction for 2D and 3D Face Recognition. Paper presented at British Machine Vision Conference 2011

We present a number of related novel methods for reducing the dimensionality of data for the purposes of 2D and 3D face recognition. Results from psychology show that humans are capable of very good recognition of low resolution images and caricature... Read More about Psychologically inspired dimensionality reduction for 2D and 3D Face Recognition.

The photoface database (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Zafeirou, S., Hansen, M. F., Atkinson, G., Argyriou, V., Petrou, M., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2011, June). The photoface database. Paper presented at Biometrics Workshop of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Face recognition based on ridgelet transforms (2010)
Presentation / Conference
Kautkar, S., Koche, R., Keskar, T., Pande, A., Rane, M., & Atkinson, G. (2010, September). Face recognition based on ridgelet transforms. Paper presented at International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics Technology

Biologically inspired 3D face recognition from surface normals (2010)
Presentation / Conference
Atkinson, G. A., Hansen, M. F., Hansen, M. F., & Atkinson, G. (2010, September). Biologically inspired 3D face recognition from surface normals. Paper presented at Procedia Computer Science, Coimbatore, India

A major consideration in state-of-the-art face recognition systems is the amount of data that is required to represent a face. Even a small (64 × 64) photograph of a face has 2 12 dimensions in which a face may sit. When large (> 1MB) photographs of... Read More about Biologically inspired 3D face recognition from surface normals.