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Sarah Leonard

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Sarah Leonard

Professor of International Security


The securitization of COVID-19 as a security norm: WHO norm entrepreneurship and norm cascading (2022)
Journal Article
Kaunert, C., Leonard, S., & Wertman, O. (2022). The securitization of COVID-19 as a security norm: WHO norm entrepreneurship and norm cascading. Social Sciences, 11(7), 266-285. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070266

In this article, we analyze the emergence of a global security norm of the COVID-19 epidemic as a threat to international security. This crisis is one of the gravest crises that humanity has experienced since the end of World War II in terms of the n... Read More about The securitization of COVID-19 as a security norm: WHO norm entrepreneurship and norm cascading.

Collective securitization and crisification of EU policy change: Two decades of EU Counterterrorism Policy (2021)
Journal Article
Kaunert, C., & Léonard, S. (2021). Collective securitization and crisification of EU policy change: Two decades of EU Counterterrorism Policy. Global Affairs, 7(5), 687-693. https://doi.org/10.1080/23340460.2021.2002098

One of the founding fathers of the European Union (EU) was very correct in suggesting that people would only recognize the necessity of change once a crisis was upon them, as the “war on terror” would show. The EU, as this special issue shows, joi... Read More about Collective securitization and crisification of EU policy change: Two decades of EU Counterterrorism Policy.

The collective securitization of aviation in the European Union through association with terrorism (2021)
Journal Article
Kaunert, C., Callander, B., & Léonard, S. (2021). The collective securitization of aviation in the European Union through association with terrorism. Global Affairs, 7(5), 669-686. https://doi.org/10.1080/23340460.2021.2002099

This article analyses the expansion of European Union cooperation on aviation security using the framework of collective securitization. It establishes how 9/11 was a precipitating event that put terrorism and aviation security in the spotlight. 9/11... Read More about The collective securitization of aviation in the European Union through association with terrorism.

Refugee flows and terrorism in the European Union: Securitization through association (2021)
Journal Article
Léonard, S., & Kaunert, C. (2021). Refugee flows and terrorism in the European Union: Securitization through association. International Politics, https://doi.org/10.1057/s41311-021-00359-4

This article contributes to the debates on the securitization of asylum and migration in Europe by focussing on the securitization of asylum-seekers through their association with terrorism during the ‘refugee crisis’, which coincided with a ‘terrori... Read More about Refugee flows and terrorism in the European Union: Securitization through association.

De-centring the securitization of asylum and migration in the European Union: Securitization, vulnerability and the role of Turkey (2021)
Journal Article
Léonard, S., & Kaunert, C. (2022). De-centring the securitization of asylum and migration in the European Union: Securitization, vulnerability and the role of Turkey. Geopolitics, 27(3), 729-751. https://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2021.1929183

This article contributes to the debates on de-centring the analysis of migration governance in Europe by focusing on the potential role of external actors in the securitisation of asylum and migration in the European Union (EU). Although there has be... Read More about De-centring the securitization of asylum and migration in the European Union: Securitization, vulnerability and the role of Turkey.

The development of Europol's external relations: Towards supranationalism? (2021)
Journal Article
Léonard, S., & Kaunert, C. (2021). The development of Europol's external relations: Towards supranationalism?. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 28(2), 229-244. https://doi.org/10.1177/1023263X211005162

This article examines the extent to which, if any, the development of Europol’s external relations over time has contributed to the integration of EU policing and criminal justice. More precisely, with reference to the academic debates on ‘intergover... Read More about The development of Europol's external relations: Towards supranationalism?.

The securitisation of migration in the European Union: Frontex and its evolving security practices (2020)
Journal Article
Léonard, S., & Kaunert, C. (2022). The securitisation of migration in the European Union: Frontex and its evolving security practices. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 48(6), 1417-1429. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183x.2020.1851469

This article investigates the evolving security practices of one of the key actors in the handling of asylum-seekers and migrants at the external borders of the European Union (EU) Member States, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, widely ref... Read More about The securitisation of migration in the European Union: Frontex and its evolving security practices.

‘They need us more than we need them’: British exceptionalism, Brexit, and justice and home affairs (2020)
Journal Article
Leonard, S., Kaunert, C., & MacKenzie, A. (2020). ‘They need us more than we need them’: British exceptionalism, Brexit, and justice and home affairs. European Foreign Affairs Review, 25(4), 573-588

This article analyses the EU-UK Future Relationship negotiations on Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) through the lenses of ‘exceptionalism’. This concept refers to a given state’s self-understanding as being not only fundamentally different from other... Read More about ‘They need us more than we need them’: British exceptionalism, Brexit, and justice and home affairs.

Preventing radicalisation and enhancing disengagement in the European Union (2020)
Book Chapter
Kaunert, C., Leonard, S., & Ikrom, Y. (2020). Preventing radicalisation and enhancing disengagement in the European Union. In S. Hansen, & S. Lid (Eds.), In Routledge Handbook of Deradicalisation and Disengagement. London: Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

This chapter examines the EU’s efforts to tackle radicalisation. The specific formulation of its title (i.e. ‘preventing radicalisation and enhancing disengagement’) reflects the EU’s emphasis on preventing radicalisation. Most of the radicalisation-... Read More about Preventing radicalisation and enhancing disengagement in the European Union.

The European Union's response to the CBRN terrorist threat: A multiple streams approach (2019)
Journal Article
Kaunert, C., & Léonard, S. (2019). The European Union's response to the CBRN terrorist threat: A multiple streams approach. Politique européenne, 65(3), 148-177. https://doi.org/10.3917/poeu.065.0148

This article examines how the European Union (EU) has sought to address the threat of CBRN terrorism using Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework. It demonstrates that the EU has significantly developed its response to the CBRN terrorist threat, but th... Read More about The European Union's response to the CBRN terrorist threat: A multiple streams approach.