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Now you see it, now you don’t: Illusive color (2021)
Journal Article
Klein, S. (2021). Now you see it, now you don’t: Illusive color. The Californian Printmaker: The Journal Of The Californian Society Of Printmakers, 2021,

My practise is centered around color. As a scientist I can only emphasize that color is a miracle of the mind. Without the human soul, it does not exist. I am choosing the word soul and not brain, because colour is not only generated by the interacti... Read More about Now you see it, now you don’t: Illusive color.

Maxwell’s disappointment / Sutton’s accident (2021)
Presentation / Conference
Klein, S., Elter, P., Trujillo Vazquez, A., & Fahy, N. (2021, October). Maxwell’s disappointment / Sutton’s accident. Presented at Colour Fever, Online

It has almost become somewhat of an urban legend or internet myth that James Clerk Maxwell created the first colour image and had demonstrated this at the Royal Institution in London in May 1861. He did present something, but what? In ‘The scientific... Read More about Maxwell’s disappointment / Sutton’s accident.

Recreating the relief of the temple of the Jaguars: Exploring digital and analogue 2.5D printing of Mesoamerican imagery (2021)
Conference Proceeding
Vazquez, A. T., Aure, X., Klein, S., & Parraman, C. (2021). Recreating the relief of the temple of the Jaguars: Exploring digital and analogue 2.5D printing of Mesoamerican imagery. In Printing for Fabrication Online 2021 Final Program and Proceedings (41-46). https://doi.org/10.2352/issn.2169-4451.2021.37.41

Digital and analogue printing methods are studied for reconstructing a Mayan decorative relief from the ancient temple of the Jaguars. Height maps, image files encoding height information as intensity values, were produced in commercial image editing... Read More about Recreating the relief of the temple of the Jaguars: Exploring digital and analogue 2.5D printing of Mesoamerican imagery.

One and many: Wet-Collodion and Woodburytype (2021)
Conference Proceeding
Klein, S., & Elter, P. (2021). One and many: Wet-Collodion and Woodburytype. In Printing for Fabrication Online 2021 Final Program and Proceedings (37-40). https://doi.org/10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2021.37.37

The invention of photography in the 19 th century changed our perception of reality for ever. Without the interpretation of an artist, an image could be recorded within minutes representing 'unfiltered' reality. Besides the scientific challenge how t... Read More about One and many: Wet-Collodion and Woodburytype.

One and many: Wet-Collodion and Woodburytype (2021)
Conference Proceeding
Elter, P., Klein, S., & Fuller, H. One and many: Wet-Collodion and Woodburytype. Manuscript submitted for publication

The invention of photography in the 19th century changed our perception of reality forever. An image could be recorded within minutes, representing ‘unfiltered’ reality. The requirement to enlist an illustrator or painter to interpret an event or loc... Read More about One and many: Wet-Collodion and Woodburytype.

Fast and Furious: Photolithography (2021)
Conference Proceeding
Klein, S., & Fuller, H. Fast and Furious: Photolithography. Manuscript submitted for publication

A short history Photolithography, as we know it today in printmaking, has many origins. All were invented with speed of production in mind. It all started with a missed deadline. Alois Senefelder, a trained layer with more love for the theatre than f... Read More about Fast and Furious: Photolithography.

Adventures in lithography (2021)
Presentation / Conference
Klein, S., & Fuller, H. (2021, June). Adventures in lithography. Paper presented at Annual Conference of the British Liquid Crystal Society, Aberdeen

Lithography is the most important industrial printing process for non-textile printing. Liquid crystal is ubiquitous in display technology. What happens when the two are combined? The adventure begins. Lithography was invented in 1796 by Alois Sene... Read More about Adventures in lithography.

Colour deceives continually (2021)
Presentation / Conference
Parraman, C., & Klein, S. (2021, January). Colour deceives continually. Presented at Electronic Imaging 2021, Color Imaging XXVI: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications, online

This paper explores the relationship between additive and subtractive mixing for printing colour. Using mica pigments that are based on additive colour mixing principles, that when combined, create white. Although currently used for decorative effect... Read More about Colour deceives continually.

Printing the light (2021)
Journal Article
Parraman, C., & Klein, S. (2021). Printing the light. Coloration Technology, 137(1), 86-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/cote.12523

This paper explores the relationship between additive and subtractive mixing for colour printing. Using Spectraval mica pigments (Merck)—marketed as RGB pigments—colour is generated by selective reflection and prints are based on additive colour mixi... Read More about Printing the light.

Now you see it, and Now you don’t: Illusive colour (2020)
Presentation / Conference
Klein, S. (2020, November). Now you see it, and Now you don’t: Illusive colour. Presented at Twenty-eighth Color and Imaging Conference, Online

Colour, as beauty, lies in the eye of the beholder. In 1861, based on the RGB model of colour perception, James Clerk Maxwell produced the first colour photographs by exposing black and white film through red, green and blue filters, thus recording i... Read More about Now you see it, and Now you don’t: Illusive colour.

Retrieving the ancient colours: Artistic practice as a tool for heritage reconstruction (2020)
Journal Article
Vazquez, A. T., Klein, S., Calvet, X. A., & Parraman, C. (2020). Retrieving the ancient colours: Artistic practice as a tool for heritage reconstruction. Color and Imaging Conference, 2020(28), 282-287. https://doi.org/10.2352/issn.2169-2629.2020.28.45

The frieze of the Palace of the stuccoes, dated between the 5 th and 6 th century BC, was a polychrome Maya relief discovered in the 1907 in Yucatán, Mexico. It was documented in watercolours and hand tinted photographs by Adela Breton. After years o... Read More about Retrieving the ancient colours: Artistic practice as a tool for heritage reconstruction.

3D printing the Woodburytype – Plastic printing the plate or gel printing the image? (2020)
Conference Proceeding
Leech, D., Guy, W., & Klein, S. (in press). 3D printing the Woodburytype – Plastic printing the plate or gel printing the image?

The Woodburytype process is one of the only printing processes capable of producing continuous tone. It is a 2.5D process that produces a textured relief print from a gelatin-based ink that contains no photo-active element and therefore does not degr... Read More about 3D printing the Woodburytype – Plastic printing the plate or gel printing the image?.

The reconstruction of the appearance of the Acancéh frieze by 2.5D printing (2020)
Conference Proceeding
Klein, S., Trujillo Vazquez, A., Calvet, X. A., & Parraman, C. (in press). The reconstruction of the appearance of the Acancéh frieze by 2.5D printing

The aim of the project is to reconstruct the appearance of the Maya frieze of the Palace of the Stuccoes in Acancéh Yucatán, dating from c. 350 BC to AD 850. The frieze itself is destroyed by now but was documented by Adela Breton in 1907. Her waterc... Read More about The reconstruction of the appearance of the Acancéh frieze by 2.5D printing.

Continuous tone relief prints in gelatin – The Woodburytype (2020)
Presentation / Conference
Leech, D., Guy, W., & Klein, S. (2020, July). Continuous tone relief prints in gelatin – The Woodburytype

Since its inception, halftoning has provided us methods of print that have high throughput and are easily reproducible. However, as the complexity of our printing methods increase, we can instead turn our attention to continuous tone methods, where t... Read More about Continuous tone relief prints in gelatin – The Woodburytype.

Woodburytype: a forgotten 19th century photomechanical process and its 21st century resurrection (2020)
Presentation / Conference
Klein, S. (2020, June). Woodburytype: a forgotten 19th century photomechanical process and its 21st century resurrection

One of the technological achievements of the 19th century was the mass reproduction of photographic images. Woodburytype was the first commercially successful photomechanical continuous tone printing method, of unsurpassed quality until today. Along... Read More about Woodburytype: a forgotten 19th century photomechanical process and its 21st century resurrection.

Rheological and flow birefringence studies of rod-shaped pigment nanoparticle dispersions (2020)
Journal Article
Salamon, P., Geng, Y., Eremin, A., Stannarius, R., Klein, S., & Börzsönyi, T. (2020). Rheological and flow birefringence studies of rod-shaped pigment nanoparticle dispersions. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 313, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2020.113401

We study rheological and rheo-optical properties of suspensions of anisometric pigment particles in a non-polar fluid. Different rheological regimes from the dilute regime to an orientationally arrested gel state were characterized and compared with... Read More about Rheological and flow birefringence studies of rod-shaped pigment nanoparticle dispersions.

The polychromatic Woodburytype: Colour tracking in translucent, patterned gelatin/pigment films (2020)
Journal Article
Leech, D. J., Guy, W., & Klein, S. (2020). The polychromatic Woodburytype: Colour tracking in translucent, patterned gelatin/pigment films. Molecules, 25(11), https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112468

The Woodburytype is a 19th century photomechanical technique capable of producing high-quality continuous-tone prints. It uses pigment dispersed in gelatin to produce a 2.5D print, in which the effect of varying tone is produced by a variation in the... Read More about The polychromatic Woodburytype: Colour tracking in translucent, patterned gelatin/pigment films.

Colour Without Colour (2020)
Presentation / Conference
Klein, S. (2020, April). Colour Without Colour. Paper presented at Helsinki Photomedia 2020, Helsinki

Woodburytype: A historical process resurrected by modern methods (2020)
Journal Article
Klein, S., Guy, W., Leech, D., & Argyle, J. (2020). Woodburytype: A historical process resurrected by modern methods. IMPACT Printmaking Journal,

One of the technological achievements of the 19th century was the mass reproduction of photographic images. Woodburytype was the first commercially successful photomechanical continuous tone printing method, of unsurpassed quality until today. Along... Read More about Woodburytype: A historical process resurrected by modern methods.