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A holistic evaluation of the impact of UK renewable strategy on emissions from compression ignition engines (2020)
Journal Article
van Niekerk, A. S., & Kay, P. J. (2020). A holistic evaluation of the impact of UK renewable strategy on emissions from compression ignition engines. Fuel, 271, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117586

Reduction in fossil fuels, contributing to greenhouse gases, and improvement of air quality from vehicle emissions is of growing concern worldwide. This has led to the introduction of several binding and non-binding agreements, such as the Renewable... Read More about A holistic evaluation of the impact of UK renewable strategy on emissions from compression ignition engines.

Optimisation of low temperature combustion technology, for future drive cycles, using a factorial design of experiments (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Van Niekerk, A. S., Kay, P. J., Drew, B., & Larsen, N. (2019). Optimisation of low temperature combustion technology, for future drive cycles, using a factorial design of experiments

Automotive manufacturers are facing increased pressure to meet more stringent emissions legislation and new legislative driving cycles. One technology that has the potential to meet future legislation is Low Temperature Combustion (LTC), which has th... Read More about Optimisation of low temperature combustion technology, for future drive cycles, using a factorial design of experiments.

Data set for influence of blends of diesel and renewable fuels on compression ignition engine emissions (2019)
Journal Article
Van Niekerk, A., Drew, B., Larsen, N., & Kay, P. (2020). Data set for influence of blends of diesel and renewable fuels on compression ignition engine emissions. Data in Brief, 28, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104836

The present data article is based on the research work which investigates the influence of blends of diesel and renewable fuels on compression ignition engine emissions. In this experimental work, a 2.4 L, turbocharged, direct injection compression i... Read More about Data set for influence of blends of diesel and renewable fuels on compression ignition engine emissions.

Influence of blends of diesel and renewable fuels on compression ignition engine emissions over transient engine conditions (2019)
Journal Article
Van Niekerk, A., Drew, B., Larsen, N., & Kay, P. (2019). Influence of blends of diesel and renewable fuels on compression ignition engine emissions over transient engine conditions. Applied Energy, 255, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113890

© 2019 Elsevier Ltd To reduce the amount of carbon dioxide released from transportation the EU has implemented legislation to mandate the renewable content of petrol and diesel fuels. However, due to the complexity of the combustion process the addit... Read More about Influence of blends of diesel and renewable fuels on compression ignition engine emissions over transient engine conditions.

Feasibility of Virtual Environments to Develop Future Driving Cycles (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Kay, P. J. (2018). Feasibility of Virtual Environments to Develop Future Driving Cycles. In SAE Technical Paper Series. https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1816

© 2018 SAE International. All Rights Reserved. The current procedure for testing emissions from new vehicles, the World Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP), was introduced in September 2017. The WLTP was developed by collecting over 765,00... Read More about Feasibility of Virtual Environments to Develop Future Driving Cycles.

Development of multi-fidelity powertrain simulation for future legislation (abstract) (2017)
Presentation / Conference
Van Niekerk, A. S., Kay, P. J., Drew, B., & Larsen, N. (2017, December). Development of multi-fidelity powertrain simulation for future legislation (abstract). Paper presented at Internal Combustion Engines 2017

Automotive manufacturers are facing increased pressure from more stringent emissions legislation and new legislative driving cycles. This creates a need for increased simulation capabilities. An engine simulation was developed in Ricardo WAVE, and wa... Read More about Development of multi-fidelity powertrain simulation for future legislation (abstract).

Transient fuel spray impingement at atmospheric and elevated ambient conditions (2012)
Journal Article
Kay, P. J., Bowen, P. J., Gold, M. R., & Sapsford, S. M. (2012). Transient fuel spray impingement at atmospheric and elevated ambient conditions. Experiments in Fluids, 53(4), 873-890. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-012-1334-0

This study analyses detailed temporally resolved full flow field data for pre- and post-impingement fuel sprays under atmospheric and elevated ambient conditions. A comprehensive suite of diagnostic techniques is utilised comprising of phase-resolved... Read More about Transient fuel spray impingement at atmospheric and elevated ambient conditions.

Quantification of transient fuel films under elevated ambient pressure environments (2012)
Journal Article
Sapsford, S., Bowen, P. J., Kay, P. J., Alonso, M., Alonso, M., Kay, P. J., …Sapsford, S. M. (2012). Quantification of transient fuel films under elevated ambient pressure environments. Atomization and Sprays, 22(1), 79-95. https://doi.org/10.1615/AtomizSpr.2012004865

Impingement of fuel sprays on solid surfaces is of interest in a wide range of industrial applications including automotive, gas turbines, and process and hazard analysis. Consequently, accurate quantification of fuel films is necessary for model val... Read More about Quantification of transient fuel films under elevated ambient pressure environments.

Studies of gasoline direct-injection sprays at elevated ambient gas temperatures and pressures (2012)
Journal Article
Sapsford, S., Bowen, P. J., Kay, P. J., Kay, P. J., Bowen, P. J., Gold, M., & Sapsford, S. M. (2012). Studies of gasoline direct-injection sprays at elevated ambient gas temperatures and pressures. Atomization and Sprays, 22(4), 305-331. https://doi.org/10.1615/AtomizSpr.2012005411

This paper studies the influence of ambient conditions on full flow-field, temporally resolved fuel spray characteristics. The gasoline sprays from a direct-injection (DI) injector are examined for varying ambient air densities, air temperature, and... Read More about Studies of gasoline direct-injection sprays at elevated ambient gas temperatures and pressures.

Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing (2011)
Journal Article
Valera-Medina, A., Syred, N., Kay, P., & Griffiths, A. (2011). Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing. Experiments in Fluids, 50(6), 1611-1623. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-010-1017-7

Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving... Read More about Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing.

Sub-cooled and flashing liquid jets and droplet dispersion I. Overview and model implementation/validation (2010)
Journal Article
Witlox, H. W., Harper, M., Oke, A., Bowen, P. J., & Kay, P. (2010). Sub-cooled and flashing liquid jets and droplet dispersion I. Overview and model implementation/validation. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 23(6), 831-842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2010.07.004

Many accidents involve two-phase releases of hazardous chemicals into the atmosphere. This paper describes the results of a third phase of a Joint Industry Project (JIP) on liquid jets and two-phase droplet dispersion. The aim of the project is to in... Read More about Sub-cooled and flashing liquid jets and droplet dispersion I. Overview and model implementation/validation.

Sub-cooled and flashing liquid jets and droplet dispersion II. Scaled experiments and derivation of droplet size correlations (2010)
Journal Article
Kay, P. J., Bowen, P. J., & Witlox, H. W. (2010). Sub-cooled and flashing liquid jets and droplet dispersion II. Scaled experiments and derivation of droplet size correlations. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 23(6), 849-856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2010.07.006

This paper describes the results of the first stage of Phase III of a Joint Industry Project (JIP) on liquid jets and two-phase droplet dispersion. This stage included scaled experiments for water, gasoline, and cyclohexane for a range of superheats... Read More about Sub-cooled and flashing liquid jets and droplet dispersion II. Scaled experiments and derivation of droplet size correlations.

Numerical studies of multiple droplet impacts onto a flat substrate (2010)
Presentation / Conference
Yokoi, K., Kay, P. J., Bowen, P., & Phillips, T. (2010, September). Numerical studies of multiple droplet impacts onto a flat substrate. Paper presented at Proceedings of 23rd European conference on Liquid Atomisation Sprays Systems

Burning velocities of alternative gaseous fuels at elevated temperature and pressure (2010)
Journal Article
Bagdanavicius, A., Bowen, P. J., Syred, N., Kay, P., Crayford, A., Sims, G., & Wood, J. (2010). Burning velocities of alternative gaseous fuels at elevated temperature and pressure. AIAA Journal, 48(2), 317-329. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.43225

This study has been undertaken to investigate turbulent burning velocities of alternative gaseous fuels at elevated temperature and pressure using the established Bunsen burner method. The experiments were conducted in the industrial scale high-press... Read More about Burning velocities of alternative gaseous fuels at elevated temperature and pressure.

A laser induced fluorescence technique for quantifying transient liquid fuel films utilising total internal reflection (2010)
Journal Article
Alonso, M., Kay, P. J., Bowen, P. J., Gilchrist, R., & Sapsford, S. (2010). A laser induced fluorescence technique for quantifying transient liquid fuel films utilising total internal reflection. Experiments in Fluids, 48(1), 133-142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-009-0720-8

This paper describes the development of a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique to quantify the thickness and spatial distribution of transient liquid fuel films formed as a result of spray-wall interaction. The LIF technique relies on the princ... Read More about A laser induced fluorescence technique for quantifying transient liquid fuel films utilising total internal reflection.

TIR-LIF: a Validation Tool for Spray Impact Models (2009)
Book Chapter
Alonso, M., Kay, P. J., Bowen, P., Gilchrist, R., & Sapsford, S. (2009). TIR-LIF: a Validation Tool for Spray Impact Models. In S. Samuelsen (Ed.), 11th International Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems 2009 (ICLASS 2009), 146. Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems


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