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An example motivated discourse of the chi-squared test of association (2 by 2) (2019)
Other
White, P., Redford, P., & Macdonald, J. (2019). An example motivated discourse of the chi-squared test of association (2 by 2)

An example application of the chi-square test of association is given through a set of questions and answers. The emphasis is on methodological aspects and what can be legitimately inferred, if anything. It is strongly highlighted that statistical... Read More about An example motivated discourse of the chi-squared test of association (2 by 2).

A primer on validity and design terminology in comparative designs (2019)
Other
White, P., Redford, P., & Macdonald, J. (2019). A primer on validity and design terminology in comparative designs

An overview of terminology (independent and dependent designs, dependent and independent variables) and validity (internal, external, and measurement) is given using six different scenarios. For simplicity of exposition, all examples have factors at... Read More about A primer on validity and design terminology in comparative designs.

Challenges for Police Leadership: Identity, Experience, Legitimacy and Direct Entry (2018)
Journal Article
Hoggett, J., Redford, P., Toher, D., & White, P. (2019). Challenges for Police Leadership: Identity, Experience, Legitimacy and Direct Entry. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 34(2), 145-155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-018-9264-2

© 2018, The Author(s). The police service in England and Wales has developed a new approach to police leadership where individuals from outside of the police service can now enter directly to leadership ranks. Previous research identified that office... Read More about Challenges for Police Leadership: Identity, Experience, Legitimacy and Direct Entry.

Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety and insomnia in a higher education context (2015)
Journal Article
Morris, J., Firkins, A., Millings, A., Mohr, C., Redford, P., & Rowe, A. (2015). Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety and insomnia in a higher education context. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 29(4), 415-431. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2015.1058924

© 2015 Taylor & Francis. Background and Objectives: Anxiety and insomnia can be treated with internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (iCBT). iCBT may be well-suited to students who are known to be poor help-seekers and suffer these symptoms... Read More about Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety and insomnia in a higher education context.

How to use t-tests to explore pre-post change (2014)
Book Chapter
Twigg, E., & Redford, P. (2014). How to use t-tests to explore pre-post change. In N. Moller, & A. Vossler (Eds.), The Counselling and Psychotherapy Research Handbook, 151-163. SAGE

Challenge and change: Police identity, morale and goodwill in an age of austerity (2014)
Report
Hoggett, J., Redford, P., Toher, D., & White, P. (2014). Challenge and change: Police identity, morale and goodwill in an age of austerity

One of the largest pieces of independent research on police attitudes in England and Wales. The research, led by Dr James Hoggett from UWE Bristol (the University of the West of England, Bristol), looked at police attitudes to current reform proposal... Read More about Challenge and change: Police identity, morale and goodwill in an age of austerity.

Writing essays: Does self-efficacy matter? The relationship between self-efficacy in reading and in writing and undergraduate students' performance in essay writing (2012)
Journal Article
Prat-Sala, M., & Redford, P. (2012). Writing essays: Does self-efficacy matter? The relationship between self-efficacy in reading and in writing and undergraduate students' performance in essay writing. Educational Psychology, 32(1), 9-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2011.621411

Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and... Read More about Writing essays: Does self-efficacy matter? The relationship between self-efficacy in reading and in writing and undergraduate students' performance in essay writing.

The interplay between motivation, self-efficacy, and approaches to studying (2010)
Journal Article
Redford, P., Prat-Sala, M., Prat-Sala, M., & Redford, P. (2010). The interplay between motivation, self-efficacy, and approaches to studying. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 283-305. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709909X480563

Background. The strategies students adopt in their study are influenced by a number of social-cognitive factors and impact upon their academic performance. Aims. The present study examined the interrelationships between motivation orientation (intrin... Read More about The interplay between motivation, self-efficacy, and approaches to studying.

Individualism-collectivism as descriptive norms: Development of a subjective norm approach to culture measurement (2009)
Journal Article
K̈rtner, J., Jiang, D. Y., Cheng, B. S., Fischer, R., Ferreira, M. C., Assmar, E., …Achoui, M. (2009). Individualism-collectivism as descriptive norms: Development of a subjective norm approach to culture measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(2), 187-213. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022109332738

The development and validation of a new instrument for measuring the descriptive norms related to individualism-collectivism (IC) is presented. IC is conceptualized as a group- specific unidimensional cultural construct with four defining attributes... Read More about Individualism-collectivism as descriptive norms: Development of a subjective norm approach to culture measurement.

Organizational behaviour across cultures: Theoretical and methodological issues for developing multi-level frameworks involving culture (2005)
Journal Article
Fischer, R., Ferreira, M. C., Assmar, E. M. L., Redford, P., & Harb, C. (2005). Organizational behaviour across cultures: Theoretical and methodological issues for developing multi-level frameworks involving culture. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 5(1), 27-48. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470595805050823

The present article has two objectives. First, general issues for developing and testing cross cultural multi-level models such as variable identification, measurement, sampling and data analysis are discussed. A second aim is to illustrate some of t... Read More about Organizational behaviour across cultures: Theoretical and methodological issues for developing multi-level frameworks involving culture.

That assumption of normality
Other
White, P., Redford, P., & Macdonald, J. That assumption of normality

Many statistical tests are based around an assumption of “normality”. The reasoning for this choice of distribution, whether to test, what to test, and how to test for normality is covered along with practical recommendations.

An example motivated discourse of the independent samples t-test and the Welch test
Other
White, P., Redford, P., & Macdonald, J. An example motivated discourse of the independent samples t-test and the Welch test

Analyses are given for two example scenarios. Both scenarios comprise two independent samples. One scenario is analysed using the independent samples t-test; the other the Welch test. Commentary on the designs and limitations is given through a qu... Read More about An example motivated discourse of the independent samples t-test and the Welch test.

Cohen’s d for two independent samples
Other
White, P., Redford, P., & Macdonald, J. Cohen’s d for two independent samples

An exposition of standardized effect for two independent samples (under an assumption of normality) is given along with an insight into interpretation and reporting

An example motivated discourse of the paired samples t-test
Other
White, P., Redford, P., & Macdonald, J. An example motivated discourse of the paired samples t-test

An application of the paired samples t-test is used to discuss the logic underpinning the test and to consider what may be legitimately inferred.

A reverse look at p-values
Other
White, P., Redford, P., & Macdonald, J. A reverse look at p-values

An overview of p-values is given. The usual way of being introduced to p-values is by considering the rigorous development of statistical tests, then their use for decision making. This note takes a reverse view by firstly considering their use in... Read More about A reverse look at p-values.