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Conducting polymers as coatings: Electrochemical and density functional theory investigations of the polymerisation (2002)
Journal Article
Smith, J., Cox, P., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Campbell, S. (2002). Conducting polymers as coatings: Electrochemical and density functional theory investigations of the polymerisation. Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, 80(2), 52-55

Electroactive materials such as polypyrrole and polythiophene have many applications including their use as coatings in the metal finishing industry. Electrochemical and density functional theory (DFT) studies of a series of derivatised thiophene mol... Read More about Conducting polymers as coatings: Electrochemical and density functional theory investigations of the polymerisation.

Deposition and characterization by surface plasmon resonance of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of three macrocyclic conjugated tetrapyrrole compounds exposed to chlorine gas (2002)
Journal Article
Honeybourne, C. L., Portus, D., Ratcliffe, N. M., Richardson, T., & Ashwell, G. (2002). Deposition and characterization by surface plasmon resonance of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of three macrocyclic conjugated tetrapyrrole compounds exposed to chlorine gas. Polish Journal of Chemistry, 76(2-3), 367-376

Identifying bacteria in human urine: Current practice and the potential for rapid, near-patient diagnosis by sensing volatile organic compounds (2001)
Journal Article
Howe, R. A., Spencer-Phillips, P. T., Ratcliffe, N. M., Guernion, N., Ratcliffe, N. M., Spencer-Phillips, P. T., & Howe, R. (2001). Identifying bacteria in human urine: Current practice and the potential for rapid, near-patient diagnosis by sensing volatile organic compounds. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 39(10), 893-906. https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2001.146

Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents a significant burden for the National Health Service. Extensive research has been directed towards rapid detection of UTI in the last thirty years. A wide range of microbiological and chemical techniques are n... Read More about Identifying bacteria in human urine: Current practice and the potential for rapid, near-patient diagnosis by sensing volatile organic compounds.

The use of a minimal number of vapour sensors for the assessment of food quality (2001)
Book Chapter
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R., Gunson, H., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2001). The use of a minimal number of vapour sensors for the assessment of food quality. In S. Clark, K. Thompson, C. Keevil, & M. Smith (Eds.), Rapid Detection Assays, 148-152. Royal Society of Chemistry

The detection of harmful chemicals and microbial pathogens in food and water destined for consumers is of paramount importance the world over and it is vital that new techniques and discoveries are widely disseminated. Bringing together international... Read More about The use of a minimal number of vapour sensors for the assessment of food quality.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of volatile organic compounds from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans or Fusarium coeruleum (2001)
Journal Article
Spencer-Phillips, P. T., Ratcliffe, N. M., Jones, P. R., De Lacy Costello, B. P., de Lacy Costello, B., Evans, P., …Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2001). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of volatile organic compounds from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans or Fusarium coeruleum. Plant Pathology, 50(4), 489-496. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2001.00594.x

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans (late blight), Fusarium coeruleum (dry rot) or sterilized distilled water (as a control) were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (G... Read More about Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of volatile organic compounds from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans or Fusarium coeruleum.

Ammonia vapour in the oral cavity as a diagnostic marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori: Preliminary 'proof of principle' pharmacological investigations (2001)
Journal Article
Dun, C., Blac, M., Cowell, D., Penaul, C., Ratcliffe, N. M., Spence, R., & Teare, C. (2001). Ammonia vapour in the oral cavity as a diagnostic marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori: Preliminary 'proof of principle' pharmacological investigations. British Journal of Biomedical Science, 58(2), 66-75

Most current non-invasive tests for Helicobacter pylori depend on the conversion of labelled (13C or 14C) urea to labelled carbon dioxide (13CO2 or 14CO2) and ammonium (NH4+) by the enzyme urease, with the labelled CO2 detected in exhaled air. Despit... Read More about Ammonia vapour in the oral cavity as a diagnostic marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori: Preliminary 'proof of principle' pharmacological investigations.

Development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers (2000)
Journal Article
Spencer-Phillips, P. T., Ratcliffe, N. M., Gunson, H. E., Ewen, R. J., De Lacy Costello, B. P., de Lacy Costello, B., …Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2000). Development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers. Measurement Science and Technology, 11(12), 1685-1691. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/11/12/305

A number of sensor types were fabricated and tested for their electrical resistance changes to compounds known to be evolved by potato tubers with soft rot caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora. On the basis of these tests, three sensors were se... Read More about Development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers.

A study of the effects of acid on the polymerisation of pyrrole, on the oxidative polymerisation of pyrrole and on polypyrrole (2000)
Journal Article
Ratcliffe, N. M., Hawkins, S. J., Hawkins, S., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (2000). A study of the effects of acid on the polymerisation of pyrrole, on the oxidative polymerisation of pyrrole and on polypyrrole. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 10(9), 2057-2062. https://doi.org/10.1039/b001912g

The polymer products arising from the hydrochloric acid treatment of aqueous pyrrole were shown to have spectroscopic data consistent with alternating pyrrole and pyrrolidine units with varying degrees of ring opening of the pyrrole units. The acid c... Read More about A study of the effects of acid on the polymerisation of pyrrole, on the oxidative polymerisation of pyrrole and on polypyrrole.

A study of methods for evaluating the integrity of plate type heat exchangers used in the dairy industry (2000)
Journal Article
type heat exchangers used in the dairy industry. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 53(1), 13-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2000.tb02650.x

An overview of leak testing methods for heat exchangers is presented. The problems associated with the presence of residual liquid during testing were assessed as it was shown experimentally that complete drainage of plate type heat exchangers is ver... Read More about A study of methods for evaluating the integrity of plate type heat exchangers used in the dairy industry.

Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV: Maris piper) infected by Erwinia carotovora, Bacillus polymyxa and Arthrobacter sp. (1999)
Journal Article
Spencer-Phillips, P. T., Ratcliffe, N. M., Ewen, R. J., De Lacy Costello, B. P., de Lacy Costello, B., Evans, P., …Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (1999). Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV: Maris piper) infected by Erwinia carotovora, Bacillus polymyxa and Arthrobacter sp. Plant Pathology, 48(3), 345-351. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.1999.00357.x

Bacteria were isolated from internal tissues of surface sterilized healthy tubers of Solanum tuberosum cv. Maris Piper (8 different isolates) and from tubers inoculated with Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora showing soft-rot symptoms (3 different is... Read More about Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV: Maris piper) infected by Erwinia carotovora, Bacillus polymyxa and Arthrobacter sp..

Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV : Maris Piper) infected by erwinia carotovora, bacillus polymyxa and arthrobacter sp (1999)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Evans, P., Ewen, R., Gunson, H., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (1999). Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV : Maris Piper) infected by erwinia carotovora, bacillus polymyxa and arthrobacter sp. Plant Pathology, 48(3), 345-351

Bacteria were isolated from internal tissues of surface sterilized healthy tubers of Solanum tuberosum cv. Maris Piper (8 different isolates) and from tubers inoculated with Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora showing soft-rot symptoms (3 different is... Read More about Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV : Maris Piper) infected by erwinia carotovora, bacillus polymyxa and arthrobacter sp.

Simple Methods for the Extraction and Identification of Amine Malodurs from Spoiled Foodstuffs (1998)
Journal Article
Jones, P., Ewen, R., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (1998). Simple Methods for the Extraction and Identification of Amine Malodurs from Spoiled Foodstuffs. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 11(3), 274-279. https://doi.org/10.1006/jfca.1998.0584

Headspace GC-MS analysis was performed on potato tubers infected withErwinia carotovorabacteria and on Iberian cured ham infected withMicroccusandLactobacillusbacteria strains, which cause extensive losses in stored foodstuffs. Headspace samples of i... Read More about Simple Methods for the Extraction and Identification of Amine Malodurs from Spoiled Foodstuffs.

The use of thin silver films for the detection of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (1998)
Journal Article
Hawkins, S. J., Hawkins, S., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Sagastizabal, A. (1998). The use of thin silver films for the detection of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide. Analytica Chimica Acta, 359(1-2), 125-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670%2897%2900633-8

This work describes the facile fabrication of a sensor for the visual detection of hydrogen sulphide at concentrations of ≤0.1 ppm. Colloidal silver films were prepared on PVC by a dip-coating method which, on exposure to hydrogen sulphide, underwent... Read More about The use of thin silver films for the detection of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide.

Novel composite organic-inorganic semiconductor sensors for the quantitative detection of target organic vapours (1996)
Journal Article
Honeybourne, C. L., Ewen, R. J., De Lacy Costello, B. P., de Lacy Costello, B., Evans, P., Ewen, R., …Ratcliffe, N. M. (1996). Novel composite organic-inorganic semiconductor sensors for the quantitative detection of target organic vapours. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 6(3), 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1039/JM9960600289

Composites of tin dioxide (an n-type semiconductor) and derivatives of the conducting polymer polypyrrole (a p-type semiconductor) gave reversible changes in electrical resistance at room temperature when exposed to a range of organic vapours. The op... Read More about Novel composite organic-inorganic semiconductor sensors for the quantitative detection of target organic vapours.

Electrorheological properties of polypyrrole prepared by the action of mineral acids on pyrrole (1996)
Journal Article
Teare, G. C., Teare, G. C., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (1996). Electrorheological properties of polypyrrole prepared by the action of mineral acids on pyrrole. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 6(3), 301-304. https://doi.org/10.1039/jm9960600301

Polypyrrole was prepared in high yield by the polymerisation of pyrrole in strongly acidic conditions using hydrofluoric, hydrochloric (at 20°C and 100°C), hydrobromic, nitric and orthophosphoric acids. The polymer products incorporated significant a... Read More about Electrorheological properties of polypyrrole prepared by the action of mineral acids on pyrrole.

Synthesis and gas sensing properties of poly[tetra(pyrrol-1-yl)silane] (1996)
Journal Article
Campbell, S. A., Smith, J. R., Evans, P., Smith, J., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Campbell, S. (1996). Synthesis and gas sensing properties of poly[tetra(pyrrol-1-yl)silane]. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 6(3), 295-299. https://doi.org/10.1039/jm9960600295

Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole and polythiophene offer a new approach to the design of modified electrodes and sensors. In the current work, the electrochemical and chemical polymerisation of tetra(pyrrol-1-yl)silane is described. Resultant... Read More about Synthesis and gas sensing properties of poly[tetra(pyrrol-1-yl)silane].

Application of density functional theory in the synthesis of electroactive polymers (1995)
Journal Article
Campbell, S. A., Cox, P. A., Smith, J. R., Smith, J., Cox, P., Campbell, S., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (1995). Application of density functional theory in the synthesis of electroactive polymers. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, 91(15), 2331-2338. https://doi.org/10.1039/FT9959102331

A wide range of conjugated organic compounds undergo anodic electropolymerisation to produce polymers of high conductivity. However, electrooxidation does not always result in the formation of electroactive materials, since some reactions produce ins... Read More about Application of density functional theory in the synthesis of electroactive polymers.

Polyheterocycles containing alkene spacer linkages Part II. Synthesis and polymerization of (E)-2-styrylthiophenes and (E)-2-styrylpyrrole (1995)
Journal Article
Campbell, S. A., Ratcliffe, N. M., Smith, J. R., Smith, J., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Campbell, S. (1995). Polyheterocycles containing alkene spacer linkages Part II. Synthesis and polymerization of (E)-2-styrylthiophenes and (E)-2-styrylpyrrole. Synthetic Metals, 73(2), 171-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/0379-6779%2895%2903318-1

A number of (E)-2-styrylthiophenes, exhibiting a range of electronic effects, and (E)-2-styrylpyrrole were synthesized and their electrochemical behaviour investigated. The films, produced by anodic electropolymerization, were redox inactive and exhi... Read More about Polyheterocycles containing alkene spacer linkages Part II. Synthesis and polymerization of (E)-2-styrylthiophenes and (E)-2-styrylpyrrole.