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Towards facial expression recognition for on-farm welfare assessment in pigs (2021)
Journal Article
Hansen, M. F., Baxter, E. M., Rutherford, K. M. D., Futro, A., Smith, M. L., & Smith, L. N. (2021). Towards facial expression recognition for on-farm welfare assessment in pigs. Agriculture, 11(9), https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11090847

Animal welfare is not only an ethically important consideration in good animal husbandry but can also have a significant effect on an animal’s productivity. The aim of this paper was to show that a reduction in animal welfare, in the form of increase... Read More about Towards facial expression recognition for on-farm welfare assessment in pigs.

Quantitative potato tuber phenotyping by 3D imaging (2021)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Smith, M., Liu, J., Xu, X., Liu, Y., Rao, Z., …Li, B. (2021). Quantitative potato tuber phenotyping by 3D imaging. Biosystems Engineering, 210, 48-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2021.08.001

The accurate phenotyping of the external quality attributes of potato tubers is important in potato breeding. Currently, the assessment of potato tuber shape, together with eye density and depth, are based on subjective naked eye visual evaluation. H... Read More about Quantitative potato tuber phenotyping by 3D imaging.

Contactless robust 3D palm-print identification using photometric stereo (2021)
Conference Proceeding
Smith, L. N., Langhof, M. P., Hansen, M. F., & Smith, M. L. (2021). Contactless robust 3D palm-print identification using photometric stereo. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2595439

Palmprints are of considerable interest as a reliable biometric, since they offer significant advantages, such as greater user acceptance than fingerprint or iris recognition. 2D systems can be spoofed by a photograph of a hand; however, 3D avoids th... Read More about Contactless robust 3D palm-print identification using photometric stereo.

The quiet revolution in machine vision - A state-of-the-art survey paper, including historical review, perspectives, and future directions (2021)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., & Hansen, M. F. (2021). The quiet revolution in machine vision - A state-of-the-art survey paper, including historical review, perspectives, and future directions. Computers in Industry, 130, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2021.103472

Over the past few years, what might not unreasonably be described as a true revolution has taken place in the field of machine vision, radically altering the way many things had previously been done and offering new and exciting opportunities for tho... Read More about The quiet revolution in machine vision - A state-of-the-art survey paper, including historical review, perspectives, and future directions.

A computer vision approach to improving cattle digestive health by the monitoring of faecal samples (2020)
Journal Article
Atkinson, G. A., Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Reynolds, C. K., Humphries, D. J., Moorby, J. M., …Kingston-Smith, A. H. (2020). A computer vision approach to improving cattle digestive health by the monitoring of faecal samples. Scientific Reports, 10, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74511-0

The digestive health of cows is one of the primary factors that determine their well-being and productivity. Under- and over-feeding are both commonplace in the beef and dairy industry; leading to welfare issues, negative environmental impacts, and e... Read More about A computer vision approach to improving cattle digestive health by the monitoring of faecal samples.

Deep 3D face recognition using 3D data augmentation and transfer learning (2020)
Conference Proceeding
Smith, M., Smith, L., Huang, N., Hansen, M., & Smith, M. (2020). Deep 3D face recognition using 3D data augmentation and transfer learning

Abstract. Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have achieved humancomparable performance on challenging 2D face databases, outperforming all previous shallow methods. However, current 3D face recognition research still focuses on non-deep-learn... Read More about Deep 3D face recognition using 3D data augmentation and transfer learning.

Optical Imaging Technology In Colonoscopy - Is There A Role For Photometric Stereo (2020)
Journal Article
Smith, M., Shandro, B. M., Emrith, K., Slabaugh, G., & Poullis, A. (in press). Optical Imaging Technology In Colonoscopy - Is There A Role For Photometric Stereo. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 12(5), 138-148. https://doi.org/10.4253/wjge.v12.i5.138

Abstract Colonoscopy screening for the detection and removal of colonic adenomas is central to efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality of colorectal cancer. However, up to a third of adenomas may be missed at colonoscopy, and the majority of p... Read More about Optical Imaging Technology In Colonoscopy - Is There A Role For Photometric Stereo.

Eye centre localisation with convolutional neural network based regression (2020)
Conference Proceeding
Zhang, W., & Smith, M. (2020). Eye centre localisation with convolutional neural network based regression. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIVC47709.2019.8980972

This paper introduces convolutional neural network regression models based on the Inception-v3 and the DenseNet architectures for accurate and real-time eye centre localisation. At a normalised error of e < 0.05, the proposed method yields an accurac... Read More about Eye centre localisation with convolutional neural network based regression.

Weed classification in grasslands using convolutional neural networks (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Smith, L. N., Byrne, A., Hansen, M. F., Zhang, W., & Smith, M. L. (2019). Weed classification in grasslands using convolutional neural networks. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2530092

Automatic identification and selective spraying of weeds (such as dock) in grass can provide very significant long-term ecological and cost benefits. Although machine vision (with interface to suitable automation) provides an effective means of achie... Read More about Weed classification in grasslands using convolutional neural networks.

Multispectral imaging for presymptomatic analysis of light leaf spot in oilseed rape (2019)
Journal Article
Veys, C., Chatziavgerinos, F., AlSuwaidi, A., Hibbert, J., Hansen, M., Bernotas, G., …Grieve, B. (2019). Multispectral imaging for presymptomatic analysis of light leaf spot in oilseed rape. Plant Methods, 15, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13007-019-0389-9

Background: The use of spectral imaging within the plant phenotyping and breeding community has been increasing due its utility as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. However, there is a lack of imaging systems targeted specifically at plant science duti... Read More about Multispectral imaging for presymptomatic analysis of light leaf spot in oilseed rape.

A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth (2019)
Journal Article
Bernotas, G., Scorza, L. C., Hansen, M. F., Hales, I. J., Halliday, K. J., Smith, L. N., …McCormick, A. J. (2019). A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth. GigaScience, 8(5), https://doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giz056

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distri... Read More about A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth.

Home activity monitoring using low resolution infrared sensor array (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Tao, L., Smith, M., Volonakis, T., Tan, B., Jing, Y., Chetty, K., & Smith, M. (2018). Home activity monitoring using low resolution infrared sensor array

Abstract. Action monitoring in a home environment provides important information for health monitoring and may serve as input into a smart home environment. Visual analysis using cameras can recognise actions in a complex scene, such as someones livi... Read More about Home activity monitoring using low resolution infrared sensor array.

Broad-leaf weed detection in pasture (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Zhang, W., Hansen, M. F., Volonakis, T. N., Smith, M., Smith, L., Wilson, J., …Wright, G. (2018). Broad-leaf weed detection in pasture

Weed control in pasture is a challenging problem that can be expensive and environmentally unfriendly. This paper proposes a novel method for recognition of broad-leaf weeds in pasture such that precision weed control can be achieved with reduced her... Read More about Broad-leaf weed detection in pasture.

2D and 3D face analysis for ticketless rail travel (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Smith, L., Zhang, W., & Smith, M. L. (2018). 2D and 3D face analysis for ticketless rail travel. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Image Processing, Computer Vision, & Pattern Recognition. , (16-22)

Research is reported into the design, implementation and functionalities of a vision system that employs the human face as a biometric for enabling ticketless rail travel. The system has been developed to optimise performance in the relatively unstru... Read More about 2D and 3D face analysis for ticketless rail travel.

Multispectral contactless 3D handprint acquisition for identification (2018)
Presentation / Conference
Hansen, M. F., Smith, L., & Smith, M. (2018, July). Multispectral contactless 3D handprint acquisition for identification. Paper presented at The 20th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2018 World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, & Applied Computing

We present and experimentally demonstrate the potential effectiveness of a photometric stereo based high resolution system for capturing 3D handprints using visible light sources. The sub-surface vascular structures are also enhanced through the use... Read More about Multispectral contactless 3D handprint acquisition for identification.

White paper - Agricultural Robotics: The Future of Robotic Agriculture (2018)
Other
Duckett, T., Pearson, S., Blackmore, S., Grieve, B., & Smith, M. (2018). White paper - Agricultural Robotics: The Future of Robotic Agriculture

Agri-Food is the largest manufacturing sector in the UK. It supports a food chain that generates over £108bn p.a., with 3.9m employees in a truly international industry and exports £20bn of UK manufactured goods. However, the global food chain is und... Read More about White paper - Agricultural Robotics: The Future of Robotic Agriculture.

A novel model and method based on Nash equilibrium for medical image segmentation (2018)
Journal Article
Zhang, T., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Smith, M., & Hancock, E. (2018). A novel model and method based on Nash equilibrium for medical image segmentation. Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics, 8(5), 872-880

Accurate image segmentation is a very important task in medical image analysis as it can help us to better distinguish tumours from normal tissues. One of the important features of MRI images of glioma (a kind of brain tumour) is that the tumour shap... Read More about A novel model and method based on Nash equilibrium for medical image segmentation.

Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments (2018)
Journal Article
Tarrit, K., Molleda, J., Atkinson, G. A., Smith, M. L., Wright, G. C., & Gaal, P. (2018). Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments. Computers in Industry, 98, 153-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.03.005

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Visual surveillance is of paramount importance in public spaces and especially in train and metro platforms which are particularly susceptible to many types of crime from petty theft to terrorist activity. Image resolution of vis... Read More about Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments.

Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems (2018)
Journal Article
Jamil, A., Khan, M., Imran, A., Wakeel, A., Smith, M., Smith, L., …Irfan, M. (2018). Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems. Computers in Industry, 98, 23-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.005

© 2018 Recent years have shown enthusiastic research interest in weed classification for selective herbicide sprayer systems which are helpful in eradicating unwanted plants such as weeds from fields, minimizing the side effects of chemicals on the e... Read More about Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems.

Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks (2018)
Journal Article
Baxter, E. M., Salter, M. G., Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Hansen, M. F., Hansen, M. F., …Grieve, B. (2018). Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks. Computers in Industry, 98, 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.016

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Identification of individual livestock such as pigs and cows has become a pressing issue in recent years as intensification practices continue to be adopted and precise objective measurements are required (e.g. weight). Current b... Read More about Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks.