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The quiet revolution in machine vision - A state-of-the-art survey paper, including historical review, perspectives, and future directions (2021)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., & Hansen, M. F. (2021). The quiet revolution in machine vision - A state-of-the-art survey paper, including historical review, perspectives, and future directions. Computers in Industry, 130, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2021.103472

Over the past few years, what might not unreasonably be described as a true revolution has taken place in the field of machine vision, radically altering the way many things had previously been done and offering new and exciting opportunities for tho... Read More about The quiet revolution in machine vision - A state-of-the-art survey paper, including historical review, perspectives, and future directions.

A computer vision approach to improving cattle digestive health by the monitoring of faecal samples (2020)
Journal Article
Atkinson, G. A., Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Reynolds, C. K., Humphries, D. J., Moorby, J. M., …Kingston-Smith, A. H. (2020). A computer vision approach to improving cattle digestive health by the monitoring of faecal samples. Scientific Reports, 10, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74511-0

The digestive health of cows is one of the primary factors that determine their well-being and productivity. Under- and over-feeding are both commonplace in the beef and dairy industry; leading to welfare issues, negative environmental impacts, and e... Read More about A computer vision approach to improving cattle digestive health by the monitoring of faecal samples.

Optical Imaging Technology In Colonoscopy - Is There A Role For Photometric Stereo (2020)
Journal Article
Smith, M., Shandro, B. M., Emrith, K., Slabaugh, G., & Poullis, A. (in press). Optical Imaging Technology In Colonoscopy - Is There A Role For Photometric Stereo. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 12(5), 138-148. https://doi.org/10.4253/wjge.v12.i5.138

Abstract Colonoscopy screening for the detection and removal of colonic adenomas is central to efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality of colorectal cancer. However, up to a third of adenomas may be missed at colonoscopy, and the majority of p... Read More about Optical Imaging Technology In Colonoscopy - Is There A Role For Photometric Stereo.

Multispectral imaging for presymptomatic analysis of light leaf spot in oilseed rape (2019)
Journal Article
Veys, C., Chatziavgerinos, F., AlSuwaidi, A., Hibbert, J., Hansen, M., Bernotas, G., …Grieve, B. (2019). Multispectral imaging for presymptomatic analysis of light leaf spot in oilseed rape. Plant Methods, 15, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13007-019-0389-9

Background: The use of spectral imaging within the plant phenotyping and breeding community has been increasing due its utility as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. However, there is a lack of imaging systems targeted specifically at plant science duti... Read More about Multispectral imaging for presymptomatic analysis of light leaf spot in oilseed rape.

A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth (2019)
Journal Article
Bernotas, G., Scorza, L. C., Hansen, M. F., Hales, I. J., Halliday, K. J., Smith, L. N., …McCormick, A. J. (2019). A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth. GigaScience, 8(5), https://doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giz056

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distri... Read More about A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth.

A novel model and method based on Nash equilibrium for medical image segmentation (2018)
Journal Article
Zhang, T., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Smith, M., & Hancock, E. (2018). A novel model and method based on Nash equilibrium for medical image segmentation. Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics, 8(5), 872-880

Accurate image segmentation is a very important task in medical image analysis as it can help us to better distinguish tumours from normal tissues. One of the important features of MRI images of glioma (a kind of brain tumour) is that the tumour shap... Read More about A novel model and method based on Nash equilibrium for medical image segmentation.

Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments (2018)
Journal Article
Tarrit, K., Molleda, J., Atkinson, G. A., Smith, M. L., Wright, G. C., & Gaal, P. (2018). Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments. Computers in Industry, 98, 153-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.03.005

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Visual surveillance is of paramount importance in public spaces and especially in train and metro platforms which are particularly susceptible to many types of crime from petty theft to terrorist activity. Image resolution of vis... Read More about Vanishing point detection for visual surveillance systems in railway platform environments.

Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems (2018)
Journal Article
Jamil, A., Khan, M., Imran, A., Wakeel, A., Smith, M., Smith, L., …Irfan, M. (2018). Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems. Computers in Industry, 98, 23-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.005

© 2018 Recent years have shown enthusiastic research interest in weed classification for selective herbicide sprayer systems which are helpful in eradicating unwanted plants such as weeds from fields, minimizing the side effects of chemicals on the e... Read More about Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems.

Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks (2018)
Journal Article
Baxter, E. M., Salter, M. G., Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Hansen, M. F., Hansen, M. F., …Grieve, B. (2018). Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks. Computers in Industry, 98, 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.016

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Identification of individual livestock such as pigs and cows has become a pressing issue in recent years as intensification practices continue to be adopted and precise objective measurements are required (e.g. weight). Current b... Read More about Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks.

Innovative 3D and 2D machine vision methods for analysis of plants and crops in the field (2018)
Journal Article
Smith, L., Zhang, W., Hansen, M. F., Hales, I., & Smith, M. (2018). Innovative 3D and 2D machine vision methods for analysis of plants and crops in the field. Computers in Industry, 97, 122-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.002

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Machine vision systems offer great potential for automating crop control, harvesting, fruit picking, and a range of other agricultural tasks. However, most of the reported research on machine vision in agriculture involves a 2D a... Read More about Innovative 3D and 2D machine vision methods for analysis of plants and crops in the field.

Photometric stereo for three-dimensional leaf venation extraction (2018)
Journal Article
Zhang, W., Hansen, M. F., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Grieve, B. (2018). Photometric stereo for three-dimensional leaf venation extraction. Computers in Industry, 98, 56-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.006

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Leaf venation extraction studies have been strongly discouraged by considerable challenges posed by venation architectures that are complex, diverse and subtle. Additionally, unpredictable local leaf curvatures, undesirable ambie... Read More about Photometric stereo for three-dimensional leaf venation extraction.

Automated monitoring of dairy cow body condition, mobility and weight using a single 3D video capture device (2018)
Journal Article
Hansen, M. F., Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., Abdul Jabbar, K., & Forbes, D. (2018). Automated monitoring of dairy cow body condition, mobility and weight using a single 3D video capture device. Computers in Industry, 98, 14-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.011

© 2018 Here we propose a low-cost automated system for the unobtrusive and continuous welfare monitoring of dairy cattle on the farm. We argue that effective and regular monitoring of multiple condition traits is not currently practicable and go on t... Read More about Automated monitoring of dairy cow body condition, mobility and weight using a single 3D video capture device.

BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum (2017)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., Farooq, A. R., Sohaib, A., Farooq, A., Smith, L., …Broadbent, L. (2017). BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum. Sensor Review, 37(4), 390-395. https://doi.org/10.1108/SR-11-2016-0258

© Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose - Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) instruments; however, there is still little research available regarding spectral... Read More about BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum.

Early and non-intrusive lameness detection in dairy cows using 3-dimensional video (2016)
Journal Article
Abdul Jabbar, K., Hansen, M. F., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2017). Early and non-intrusive lameness detection in dairy cows using 3-dimensional video. Biosystems Engineering, 153, 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.017

ABSTRACT Lameness is a major issue in dairy herds and its early and automated detection offers animal welfare benefits together with high potential commercial savings for farmers. Current advancements in automated detection have not achieved a sensi... Read More about Early and non-intrusive lameness detection in dairy cows using 3-dimensional video.

Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Farooq, A. R., Smith, M. L., Ivanov, I. E., & Orlando, A. (2017). Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction. International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 13(2), https://doi.org/10.1002/rcs.1761

Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Background: Remote consultations that are realistic enough to be useful medically offer considerable clinical, logistical and cost benefits. Despite advances in virtual reality and vision hardware and softwa... Read More about Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction.

Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach (2016)
Journal Article
Zhang, W., Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., & Farooq, A. R. (2016). Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach. Sensor Review, 36(3), 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1108/SR-06-2015-0098

© Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose - This paper aims to introduce an unsupervised modular approach for eye centre localisation in images and videos following a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The design of the algorithm aims at ex... Read More about Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach.

Gender and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction (2016)
Journal Article
Zhang, W., Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., & Farooq, A. (2016). Gender and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 149, 32-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cviu.2016.03.014

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. The identification of visual cues in facial images has been widely explored in the broad area of computer vision. However theoretical analyses are often not transformed into widespread assistive Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) s... Read More about Gender and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction.

Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions? (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Wenhao, Z., Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions?. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 33(3), 333-344. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.33.000333

© 2016 Optical Society of America. This paper seeks to compare encoded features from both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) face images in order to achieve automatic gender recognition with high accuracy and robustness. The Fisher vecto... Read More about Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions?.

Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 33(3), 314-325. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.33.000314

© 2016 Optical Society of America. This paper introduces an unsupervised modular approach for accurate and real-time eye center localization in images and videos, thus allowing a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The trajectories of eye cent... Read More about Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction.