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Exploring distributed control with the NK model (2020)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2020). Exploring distributed control with the NK model. International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems, 35(4), 413-422. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445760.2020.1760864

The NK model has been used widely to explore aspects of natural evolution and complex systems. This paper introduces a modified form of the NK model for exploring distributed control in complex systems such as organisations, social networks, collecti... Read More about Exploring distributed control with the NK model.

Towards an evolvable cancer treatment simulator (2019)
Journal Article
Preen, R. J., Bull, L., & Adamatzky, A. (2019). Towards an evolvable cancer treatment simulator. BioSystems, 182, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2019.05.005

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. The use of high-fidelity computational simulations promises to enable high-throughput hypothesis testing and optimisation of cancer therapies. However, increasing realism comes at the cost of increasing computational requirements... Read More about Towards an evolvable cancer treatment simulator.

Design mining microbial fuel cell cascades (2018)
Journal Article
Preen, R., You, J., Bull, L., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Design mining microbial fuel cell cascades. Soft Computing, 23(13), 4673-7643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00500-018-3117-x

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) perform wastewater treatment and electricity production through the conversion of organic matter using microorganisms. For practical applications, it has been suggested that greater efficiency can be achieved by arranging... Read More about Design mining microbial fuel cell cascades.

The evolution of sex through the Baldwin effect (2017)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2017). The evolution of sex through the Baldwin effect. Artificial Life, 23(4), 481-492. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00242

This paper suggests that the fundamental haploid-diploid cycle of eukaryotic sex exploits a rudimentary form of the Baldwin effect. With this explanation for the basic cycle, the other associated phenomena can be explained as evolution tuning the amo... Read More about The evolution of sex through the Baldwin effect.

On Design Mining: Coevolution and Surrogate Models (2017)
Journal Article
Preen, R., & Bull, L. (2017). On Design Mining: Coevolution and Surrogate Models. Artificial Life, 23(2), 186-205. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00225

© 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) license. Design mining is the use of computational intelligence techniques to iteratively search and model the attribute space of ph... Read More about On Design Mining: Coevolution and Surrogate Models.

Haploid-diploid evolutionary algorithms: The Baldwin effect and recombination nature’s way (2017)
Presentation / Conference
Bull, L. (2017, April). Haploid-diploid evolutionary algorithms: The Baldwin effect and recombination nature’s way. Paper presented at 2017 AISB Convention

This paper uses the recent idea that the fundamental haploid-diploid lifecycle of eukaryotic organisms implements a rudimentary form of learning within evolution. A general approach for evolutionary computation is here derived that differs from all p... Read More about Haploid-diploid evolutionary algorithms: The Baldwin effect and recombination nature’s way.

3D printed components of microbial fuel cells: Towards monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication using additive layer manufacturing (2016)
Journal Article
Preen, R. J., You, J., Preen, R., Bull, L., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2017). 3D printed components of microbial fuel cells: Towards monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication using additive layer manufacturing. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 19, 94-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2016.11.006

© 2016 The Authors For practical applications of the MFC technology, the design as well as the processes of manufacturing and assembly, should be optimised for the specific target use. Another burgeoning technology, additive manufacturing (3D printin... Read More about 3D printed components of microbial fuel cells: Towards monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication using additive layer manufacturing.

Design mining interacting wind turbines (2016)
Journal Article
Preen, R. J., Preen, R., & Bull, L. (2016). Design mining interacting wind turbines. Evolutionary Computation, 24(1), 89-111. https://doi.org/10.1162/EVCO_a_00144

© 2016 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. An initial study has recently been presented of surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms used to design vertical-axis wind turbines wherein candidate prototypes are evaluated under fan-generated... Read More about Design mining interacting wind turbines.

Towards a Physarum learning chip (2016)
Journal Article
Whiting, J. G., Whiting, J., Jones, J., Bull, L., Levin, M., & Adamatzky, A. (2016). Towards a Physarum learning chip. Scientific Reports, 6, 19948. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep19948

Networks of protoplasmic tubes of organism Physarum polycehpalum are macro-scale structures which optimally span multiple food sources to avoid repellents yet maximize coverage of attractants. When data are presented by configurations of attractants... Read More about Towards a Physarum learning chip.

Evolving unipolar memristor spiking neural networks (2015)
Journal Article
Howard, G. D., Bull, L., & De Lacy Costello, B. (2015). Evolving unipolar memristor spiking neural networks. Connection Science, 27(4), 397-416. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540091.2015.1080225

© 2015 Taylor & Francis. Neuromorphic computing – brain-like computing in hardware – typically requires myriad complimentary metal oxide semiconductor spiking neurons interconnected by a dense mesh of nanoscale plastic synapses. Memristors are freq... Read More about Evolving unipolar memristor spiking neural networks.

A brief history of learning classifier systems: from CS-1 to XCS and its variants (2015)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2015). A brief history of learning classifier systems: from CS-1 to XCS and its variants. Evolutionary Intelligence, 8(2-3), 55-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12065-015-0125-y

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The direction set by Wilson’s XCS is that modern Learning Classifier Systems can be characterized by their use of rule accuracy as the utility metric for the search algorithm(s) discovering useful rules. Suc... Read More about A brief history of learning classifier systems: from CS-1 to XCS and its variants.

On the evolution of Boolean networks for computation: A guide RNA mechanism (2015)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2016). On the evolution of Boolean networks for computation: A guide RNA mechanism. International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems, 31(2), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445760.2015.1057590

© 2015 Taylor & Francis. There is a growing body of work within computational intelligence which explores the use of representations inspired by the genetic regulatory networks of biological cells. This paper uses a recently presented abstract, tun... Read More about On the evolution of Boolean networks for computation: A guide RNA mechanism.

A Cognitive Architecture Based on a Learning Classifier System with Spiking Classifiers (2015)
Journal Article
Howard, D., Howard, G. D., Bull, L., & Lanzi, P. L. (2016). A Cognitive Architecture Based on a Learning Classifier System with Spiking Classifiers. Neural Processing Letters, 44(1), 125-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11063-015-9451-4

© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Learning classifier systems (LCS) are population-based reinforcement learners that were originally designed to model various cognitive phenomena. This paper presents an explicitly cognitive LCS by usi... Read More about A Cognitive Architecture Based on a Learning Classifier System with Spiking Classifiers.

On the evolution of behaviors through embodied imitation (2015)
Journal Article
Erbas, M. D., Bull, L., & Winfield, A. F. (2015). On the evolution of behaviors through embodied imitation. Artificial Life, 21(2), 141-165. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00164

© 2015 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Abstract This article describes research in which embodied imitation and behavioral adaptation are investigated in collective robotics. We model social learning in artificial agents with real robots. The... Read More about On the evolution of behaviors through embodied imitation.

Toward the coevolution of novel vertical-axis wind turbines (2015)
Journal Article
Preen, R., & Bull, L. (2015). Toward the coevolution of novel vertical-axis wind turbines. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 19(2), 284-294. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEVC.2014.2316199

The production of renewable and sustainable energy is one of the most important challenges currently facing mankind. Wind has made an increasing contribution to the world's energy supply mix, but remains a long way from reaching its full potential. I... Read More about Toward the coevolution of novel vertical-axis wind turbines.

Towards the evolution of vertical-axis wind turbines using supershapes (2014)
Journal Article
Preen, R. J., Preen, R., & Bull, L. (2014). Towards the evolution of vertical-axis wind turbines using supershapes. Evolutionary Intelligence, 7(3), 155-167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12065-014-0116-4

© 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. We have recently presented an initial study of evolutionary algorithms used to design vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) wherein candidate prototypes are evaluated under fan generated wind conditions after... Read More about Towards the evolution of vertical-axis wind turbines using supershapes.

Evolving spiking networks with variable resistive memories (2014)
Journal Article
Gale, E., Howard, G., Howard, G. D., Bull, L., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2014). Evolving spiking networks with variable resistive memories. Evolutionary Computation, 22(1), 79-103. https://doi.org/10.1162/EVCO_a_00103

Neuromorphic computing is a brainlike information processing paradigm that requires adaptive learning mechanisms. A spiking neuro-evolutionary system is used for this purpose; plastic resistive memories are implemented as synapses in spiking neural n... Read More about Evolving spiking networks with variable resistive memories.

Evolving Boolean regulatory networks with epigenetic control (2014)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2014). Evolving Boolean regulatory networks with epigenetic control. BioSystems, 116, 36-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2013.12.004

The significant role of epigenetic mechanisms within natural systems has become increasingly clear. This paper uses a recently presented abstract, tunable Boolean genetic regulatory network model to explore aspects of epigenetics. It is shown how dyn... Read More about Evolving Boolean regulatory networks with epigenetic control.


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