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Non-binary representations in the NK and NKCS models (2021)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (in press). Non-binary representations in the NK and NKCS models. Journal of Complex Systems,

The NK model has been used widely to explore aspects of natural evolution and complex systems. Traditionally, the model has used a binary representation scheme. This paper introduces a modified form of the NK model through which to systematically exp... Read More about Non-binary representations in the NK and NKCS models.

Evolutionary algorithms designing nanoparticle cancer treatments with multiple particle types (2021)
Journal Article
Tsompanas, M., Bull, L., Adamatzky, A., & Balaz, I. (in press). Evolutionary algorithms designing nanoparticle cancer treatments with multiple particle types. IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine,

There is a rich history of evolutionary algorithms tackling optimization problems where the most appropriate size of solutions, namely the genome length, is unclear a priori. Here, we investigated the applicability of this methodology on the problem... Read More about Evolutionary algorithms designing nanoparticle cancer treatments with multiple particle types.

On coevolution: Asymmetry in the NKCS model (2021)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2021). On coevolution: Asymmetry in the NKCS model. BioSystems, 207, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2021.104469

The NKCS model was introduced to explore coevolutionary systems, that is, systems in which multiple species are closely interconnected. The fitness landscapes of the species are coupled to a controllable amount, where the underlying properties of the... Read More about On coevolution: Asymmetry in the NKCS model.

On the emergence of intersexual selection: Arbitrary trait preference improves female-male coevolution (2021)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2021). On the emergence of intersexual selection: Arbitrary trait preference improves female-male coevolution. Artificial Life, 27(1), 15-25. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00335

Sexual selection is a fundamental aspect of evolution for all eukaryotic organisms with mating types. This article suggests intersexual selection is best viewed as a mechanism with which to compensate for the unavoidable dynamics of coevolution betwe... Read More about On the emergence of intersexual selection: Arbitrary trait preference improves female-male coevolution.

Autoencoding with a classifier system (2021)
Journal Article
Preen, R. J., Wilson, S. W., & Bull, L. (in press). Autoencoding with a classifier system. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, https://doi.org/10.1109/TEVC.2021.3079320

Autoencoders are data-specific compression algorithms learned automatically from examples. The predominant approach has been to construct single large global models that cover the domain. However, training and evaluating models of increasing size com... Read More about Autoencoding with a classifier system.

Evolving Boolean regulatory networks with variable gene expression times (2021)
Book Chapter
Bull, L. (in press). Evolving Boolean regulatory networks with variable gene expression times. In Handbook of Unconventional Computing (246-258). Springer

The time taken for gene expression varies not least because proteins vary in length considerably. This paper uses an abstract, tuneable Boolean regulatory network model to explore gene expression time variation. In particular, it is shown how non-uni... Read More about Evolving Boolean regulatory networks with variable gene expression times.

In silico optimization of cancer therapies with multiple types of nanoparticles applied at different times (2020)
Journal Article
Tsompanas, M. A., Bull, L., Adamatzky, A., & Balaz, I. (2020). In silico optimization of cancer therapies with multiple types of nanoparticles applied at different times. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 200, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105886

© 2020 The Author(s) Background and Objective: Cancer tumors constitute a complicated environment for conventional anti-cancer treatments to confront, so solutions with higher complexity and, thus, robustness to diverse conditions are required. Alter... Read More about In silico optimization of cancer therapies with multiple types of nanoparticles applied at different times.

Novelty search employed into the development of cancer treatment simulations (2020)
Journal Article
Tsompanas, M., Bull, L., Adamatzky, A., & Balaz, I. (2020). Novelty search employed into the development of cancer treatment simulations. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, 19, 100347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imu.2020.100347

Conventional optimization methodologies may be hindered when the automated search is stuck into local optima because of a deceptive objective function landscape. Consequently, open ended search methodologies, such as novelty search, have been propose... Read More about Novelty search employed into the development of cancer treatment simulations.

Exploring distributed control with the NK model (2020)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2020). Exploring distributed control with the NK model. International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems, 35(4), 413-422. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445760.2020.1760864

The NK model has been used widely to explore aspects of natural evolution and complex systems. This paper introduces a modified form of the NK model for exploring distributed control in complex systems such as organisations, social networks, collecti... Read More about Exploring distributed control with the NK model.

Towards an evolvable cancer treatment simulator (2019)
Journal Article
Preen, R. J., Bull, L., & Adamatzky, A. (2019). Towards an evolvable cancer treatment simulator. BioSystems, 182, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2019.05.005

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. The use of high-fidelity computational simulations promises to enable high-throughput hypothesis testing and optimisation of cancer therapies. However, increasing realism comes at the cost of increasing computational requirements... Read More about Towards an evolvable cancer treatment simulator.

Design mining microbial fuel cell cascades (2018)
Journal Article
Preen, R., You, J., Bull, L., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Design mining microbial fuel cell cascades. Soft Computing, 23(13), 4673-7643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00500-018-3117-x

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) perform wastewater treatment and electricity production through the conversion of organic matter using microorganisms. For practical applications, it has been suggested that greater efficiency can be achieved by arranging... Read More about Design mining microbial fuel cell cascades.

The evolution of sex through the Baldwin effect (2017)
Journal Article
Bull, L. (2017). The evolution of sex through the Baldwin effect. Artificial Life, 23(4), 481-492. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00242

This paper suggests that the fundamental haploid-diploid cycle of eukaryotic sex exploits a rudimentary form of the Baldwin effect. With this explanation for the basic cycle, the other associated phenomena can be explained as evolution tuning the amo... Read More about The evolution of sex through the Baldwin effect.

On Design Mining: Coevolution and Surrogate Models (2017)
Journal Article
Preen, R., & Bull, L. (2017). On Design Mining: Coevolution and Surrogate Models. Artificial Life, 23(2), 186-205. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00225

© 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) license. Design mining is the use of computational intelligence techniques to iteratively search and model the attribute space of ph... Read More about On Design Mining: Coevolution and Surrogate Models.

Haploid-diploid evolutionary algorithms: The Baldwin effect and recombination nature’s way (2017)
Presentation / Conference
Bull, L. (2017, April). Haploid-diploid evolutionary algorithms: The Baldwin effect and recombination nature’s way. Paper presented at 2017 AISB Convention

This paper uses the recent idea that the fundamental haploid-diploid lifecycle of eukaryotic organisms implements a rudimentary form of learning within evolution. A general approach for evolutionary computation is here derived that differs from all p... Read More about Haploid-diploid evolutionary algorithms: The Baldwin effect and recombination nature’s way.

3D printed components of microbial fuel cells: Towards monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication using additive layer manufacturing (2016)
Journal Article
Preen, R. J., You, J., Preen, R., Bull, L., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2017). 3D printed components of microbial fuel cells: Towards monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication using additive layer manufacturing. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 19, 94-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2016.11.006

© 2016 The Authors For practical applications of the MFC technology, the design as well as the processes of manufacturing and assembly, should be optimised for the specific target use. Another burgeoning technology, additive manufacturing (3D printin... Read More about 3D printed components of microbial fuel cells: Towards monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication using additive layer manufacturing.

Design mining interacting wind turbines (2016)
Journal Article
Preen, R. J., Preen, R., & Bull, L. (2016). Design mining interacting wind turbines. Evolutionary Computation, 24(1), 89-111. https://doi.org/10.1162/EVCO_a_00144

© 2016 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. An initial study has recently been presented of surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms used to design vertical-axis wind turbines wherein candidate prototypes are evaluated under fan-generated... Read More about Design mining interacting wind turbines.

Towards a Physarum learning chip (2016)
Journal Article
Whiting, J. G. H., Jones, J., Bull, L., Levin, M., & Adamatzky, A. (2016). Towards a Physarum learning chip. Scientific Reports, 6, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep19948

Networks of protoplasmic tubes of organism Physarum polycehpalum are macro-scale structures which optimally span multiple food sources to avoid repellents yet maximize coverage of attractants. When data are presented by configurations of attractants... Read More about Towards a Physarum learning chip.