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Response of ceramic microbial fuel cells to direct anodic airflow and novel hydrogel cathodes (2019)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Response of ceramic microbial fuel cells to direct anodic airflow and novel hydrogel cathodes. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(29), 15344-15354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.04.024

© 2019 The Authors The presence of air in the anode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs)might be unavoidable in some applications. This study purposely exposed the anodic biofilm to air for sustained cycles using ceramic cylindrical MFCs. A method... Read More about Response of ceramic microbial fuel cells to direct anodic airflow and novel hydrogel cathodes.

Passive feeding in paper-based microbial fuel cells (2018)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Milani, P., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2018). Passive feeding in paper-based microbial fuel cells. ECS Transactions, 85(13), 1193-1200. https://doi.org/10.1149/08513.1193ecst

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are often constructed using materials such as plastic that can be hazardous to the environment. Building MFCs from paper is a sustainable option, making the fuel cells lightweight and easy to carry. Transported in the bott... Read More about Passive feeding in paper-based microbial fuel cells.

Eating, drinking, living, dying and decaying soft robots (2017)
Book Chapter
Rossiter, J., Winfield, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2017). Eating, drinking, living, dying and decaying soft robots. In C. Laschi, J. Rossiter, F. Lida, M. Cianchetti, & L. Margheri (Eds.), Soft Robotics: Trends, Applications and Challenges, 95-101. Springer International Publishing

Soft robotics opens up a whole range of possibilities that go far beyond conventional rigid and electromagnetic robotics. New smart materials and new design and modelling methodologies mean we can start to replicate the operations and functionalities... Read More about Eating, drinking, living, dying and decaying soft robots.

Scaling-up of a novel, simplified MFC stack based on a self-stratifying urine column (2016)
Journal Article
Walter, X. A., Gajda, I., Forbes, S., Winfield, J., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2016). Scaling-up of a novel, simplified MFC stack based on a self-stratifying urine column. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 9(1), https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-016-0504-3

© 2016 Walter et al. Background: The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a technology in which microorganisms employ an electrode (anode) as a solid electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. This results in direct transformation of chemical energy into e... Read More about Scaling-up of a novel, simplified MFC stack based on a self-stratifying urine column.

Here today, gone tomorrow: Biodegradable soft robots (2016)
Journal Article
Rossiter, J., Winfield, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2016). Here today, gone tomorrow: Biodegradable soft robots. Proceedings of SPIE, 9798, 97981S. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2220611

© 2016 SPIE. One of the greatest challenges to modern technologies is what to do with them when they go irreparably wrong or come to the end of their productive lives. The convention, since the development of modern civilisation, is to discard a brok... Read More about Here today, gone tomorrow: Biodegradable soft robots.

Analysis of microbial fuel cell operation in acidic conditions using the flocculating agent ferric chloride (2016)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Greenman, J., Dennis, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2016). Analysis of microbial fuel cell operation in acidic conditions using the flocculating agent ferric chloride. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 91(1), 138-143. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4552

© 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. BACKGROUND: Ferric chloride (FeCl3) is widely used as a flocculating agent during wastewater treatment but can detrimentally lower pH and increase iron concentration. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising te... Read More about Analysis of microbial fuel cell operation in acidic conditions using the flocculating agent ferric chloride.

A review into the use of ceramics in microbial fuel cells (2016)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Gajda, I., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2016). A review into the use of ceramics in microbial fuel cells. Bioresource Technology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.03.135

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer great promise as a technology that can produce electricity whilst at the same time treat wastewater. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, the requirement for cheaper materials has prevented th... Read More about A review into the use of ceramics in microbial fuel cells.

Cast and 3D printed ion exchange membranes for monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication (2015)
Journal Article
Philamore, H., Philamorea, H., Rossiter, J., Walters, P., Winfield, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2015). Cast and 3D printed ion exchange membranes for monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication. Journal of Power Sources, 289, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.04.113

© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We present novel solutions to a key challenge in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology; greater power density through increased relative surface area of the ion exchange membrane that separates the anode and c... Read More about Cast and 3D printed ion exchange membranes for monolithic microbial fuel cell fabrication.

Urine-activated origami microbial fuel cells to signal proof of life (2015)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Chambers, L., Rossiter, J., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2015). Urine-activated origami microbial fuel cells to signal proof of life. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015(13), 7058-7065. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5TA00687B

The adaptability and practicality of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are highly desirable traits in the search for alternative sources of energy. An innovative application for the technology could be to power portable emergency locator transmitters (ELTs... Read More about Urine-activated origami microbial fuel cells to signal proof of life.

Fade to Green: A Biodegradable Stack of Microbial Fuel Cells (2015)
Journal Article
Walter, X. A., Chambers, L. D., Winfield, J., Chambers, L., Rossiter, J., Stinchcombe, A., …Ieropoulos, I. (2015). Fade to Green: A Biodegradable Stack of Microbial Fuel Cells. ChemSusChem, 8(16), 2705-2712. https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201500431

© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. The focus of this study is the development of biodegradable microbial fuel cells (MFCs) able to produce useful power. Reactors with an 8mL chamber volume were designed using all biodegradable produ... Read More about Fade to Green: A Biodegradable Stack of Microbial Fuel Cells.

Towards disposable microbial fuel cells: Natural rubber glove membranes (2014)
Journal Article
Chambers, L. D., Winfield, J., Chambers, L., Rossiter, J., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2014). Towards disposable microbial fuel cells: Natural rubber glove membranes. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(36), 21803-21810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.09.071

© 2014 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Natural rubber from laboratory gloves (GNR) was compared to cation exchange membrane (CEM) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). GNR-MFCs immediately generated power... Read More about Towards disposable microbial fuel cells: Natural rubber glove membranes.

Biodegradable and edible gelatine actuators for use as artificial muscles (2014)
Journal Article
Chambers, L. D., Winfield, J., Ieropoulos, I., & Rossiter, J. (2014). Biodegradable and edible gelatine actuators for use as artificial muscles. Proceedings of SPIE, 9056, 90560B. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2045104

The expense and use of non-recyclable materials often requires the retrieval and recovery of exploratory robots. Therefore, conventional materials such as plastics and metals in robotics can be limiting. For applications such as environmental monitor... Read More about Biodegradable and edible gelatine actuators for use as artificial muscles.

Towards fully biodegradable microbial fuel cells (2014)
Book Chapter
Winfield, J., Chambers, L., Rossiter, J., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2014). Towards fully biodegradable microbial fuel cells. In XVI International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation SymposiumInternational Biodeterioration and Biodegradation Society (IBBS)

Introduction. In order to sustainably protect and manage the environment, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including: (i) the search for new sources of green energy; (ii) improving the efficiency of human waste treatment; and (iii) identi... Read More about Towards fully biodegradable microbial fuel cells.

Comparing terracotta and earthenware for multiple functionalities in microbial fuel cells (2013)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Greenman, J., Huson, D., & Ieropoulos, I. (2013). Comparing terracotta and earthenware for multiple functionalities in microbial fuel cells. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 36(12), 1913-1921. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-013-0967-6

The properties of earthenware and terracotta were investigated in terms of structural integrity and ion conductivity, in two microbial fuel cell (MFC) designs. Parameters such as wall thickness (4, 8, 18 mm), porosity and cathode hydration were analy... Read More about Comparing terracotta and earthenware for multiple functionalities in microbial fuel cells.

Biodegradation and proton exchange using natural rubber in microbial fuel cells (2013)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Ieropoulos, I., Rossiter, J., Greenman, J., & Patton, D. (2013). Biodegradation and proton exchange using natural rubber in microbial fuel cells. Biodegradation, 24(6), 733-739. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-013-9621-x

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) generate electricity from waste but to date the technology's development and scale-up has been held-up by the need to incorporate expensive materials. A costly but vital component is the ion exchange membrane (IEM) which c... Read More about Biodegradation and proton exchange using natural rubber in microbial fuel cells.

The power of glove: Soft microbial fuel cell for low-power electronics (2013)
Journal Article
Chambers, L. D., Winfield, J., Chambers, L., Stinchcombe, A., Rossiter, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2014). The power of glove: Soft microbial fuel cell for low-power electronics. Journal of Power Sources, 249, 327-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.096

A novel, soft microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been constructed using the finger-piece of a standard laboratory natural rubber latex glove. The natural rubber serves as structural and proton exchange material whilst untreated carbon veil is used for the... Read More about The power of glove: Soft microbial fuel cell for low-power electronics.

Comparing the short and long term stability of biodegradable, ceramic and cation exchange membranes in microbial fuel cells (2013)
Journal Article
Chambers, L. D., Winfield, J., Chambers, L., Rossiter, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2013). Comparing the short and long term stability of biodegradable, ceramic and cation exchange membranes in microbial fuel cells. Bioresource Technology, 148, 480-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.163

The long and short-term stability of two porous dependent ion exchange materials; starch-based compostable bags (BioBag) and ceramic, were compared to commercially available cation exchange membrane (CEM) in microbial fuel cells. Using bi-directional... Read More about Comparing the short and long term stability of biodegradable, ceramic and cation exchange membranes in microbial fuel cells.

Investigating a cascade of seven hydraulically connected microbial fuel cells (2012)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Ieropoulos, I., & Greenman, J. (2012). Investigating a cascade of seven hydraulically connected microbial fuel cells. Bioresource Technology, 110, 245-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.095

Seven miniature microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were hydraulically linked in sequence and operated in continuous-flow (cascade). Power output and treatment efficiency were investigated using varying organic loads, flow-rates and electrical configurations... Read More about Investigating a cascade of seven hydraulically connected microbial fuel cells.

Investigating the effects of fluidic connection between microbial fuel cells (2011)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Ieropoulos, I., Greenman, J., & Dennis, J. (2011). Investigating the effects of fluidic connection between microbial fuel cells. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 34(4), 477-484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-010-0491-x

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can 'treat' wastewater but individually are thermodynamically restricted. Scale-up might, therefore, require a plurality of units operating in a stack which could introduce losses simply through fluidic connections. Experi... Read More about Investigating the effects of fluidic connection between microbial fuel cells.

The overshoot phenomenon as a function of internal resistance in microbial fuel cells (2011)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Ieropoulos, I., Greenman, J., & Dennis, J. (2011). The overshoot phenomenon as a function of internal resistance in microbial fuel cells. Bioelectrochemistry, 81(1), 22-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2011.01.001

A method for assessing the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is the polarisation sweep where different external resistances are applied at set intervals (sample rates). The resulting power curves often exhibit an overshoot where both power a... Read More about The overshoot phenomenon as a function of internal resistance in microbial fuel cells.