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The role of crowd theory in determining the use of force in public order policing (2010)
Journal Article
Hoggett, J., & Stoff, C. (2010). The role of crowd theory in determining the use of force in public order policing. Policing and Society, 20(2), 223-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/10439461003668468

Social psychological research suggests that where police hold a theoretical view of the crowd in line with the 'classic' crowd psychology of Gustavé Le Bon this can lead to police practices that inadvertently escalate public disorder. This research r... Read More about The role of crowd theory in determining the use of force in public order policing.

Crowd psychology, public order police training and the policing of football crowds (2010)
Journal Article
Hoggett, J., & Stott, C. (2010). Crowd psychology, public order police training and the policing of football crowds. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 33(2), 218-235. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639511011044858

Purpose – This study seeks to examine what theory of crowd psychology is being applied within public order police training in England and Wales and what accounts of crowds, police strategies and tactics subsequently emerge among officers who undertak... Read More about Crowd psychology, public order police training and the policing of football crowds.