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Between gang talk and prohibition: The transfer of blame for County Lines (2020)
Journal Article
Spicer, J. (in press). Between gang talk and prohibition: The transfer of blame for County Lines. International Journal of Drug Policy, 102667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102667

Background The drug supply model termed ‘County Lines’ has generated extensive attention over recent years in the UK. Associated street violence, the involvement of young people and exploitation have been the source of intense concern. However, litt... Read More about Between gang talk and prohibition: The transfer of blame for County Lines.

The policing of ‘county lines’ in affected import towns: Exploring local responses to evolving heroin and crack markets (2019)
Thesis
Spicer, J. The policing of ‘county lines’ in affected import towns: Exploring local responses to evolving heroin and crack markets. (Thesis). UWE. Retrieved from https://uwe-repository....ribe.com/output/1822537

Across the UK, markets for heroin and crack cocaine in provincial towns are evolving. Due to the high-profile drug market development termed ‘County Lines’, retail supply in many areas is now seemingly dominated by ‘out of town’ dealers who have esta... Read More about The policing of ‘county lines’ in affected import towns: Exploring local responses to evolving heroin and crack markets.

The variable and evolving nature of ‘cuckooing’ as a form of criminal exploitation in street level drug markets (2019)
Journal Article
Spicer, J., Moyle, L., & Coomber, R. (in press). The variable and evolving nature of ‘cuckooing’ as a form of criminal exploitation in street level drug markets. Trends in Organized Crime, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-019-09368-5

A form of criminal exploitation rarely mentioned in the academic literature has recently emerged, evolved and taken meaningful hold in the UK. Hundreds of cases of ‘cuckooing’ have been reported, where heroin and crack cocaine dealers associated with... Read More about The variable and evolving nature of ‘cuckooing’ as a form of criminal exploitation in street level drug markets.

‘That’s their brand, their business’: How police officers are interpreting County Lines (2018)
Journal Article
Spicer, J. (2019). ‘That’s their brand, their business’: How police officers are interpreting County Lines. Policing and Society, 29(8), 873-886. https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.2018.1445742

A recent development in drug markets across England and Wales garnering increased attention is the phenomenon of ‘County Lines’. This involves drug supply groups migrating from major cities to smaller towns, and has become associated with a range of... Read More about ‘That’s their brand, their business’: How police officers are interpreting County Lines.


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