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Review of the partially overlapping samples framework: Paired observations and independent observations in two samples (2022)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., & White, P. (2022). Review of the partially overlapping samples framework: Paired observations and independent observations in two samples. Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 18(1), 55-65. https://doi.org/10.20982/tqmp.18.1.p055

A frequently asked question in quantitative research is how to compare two samples that include some combination of paired observations and unpaired observations. In our publications and R package, we refer to the scenario as ‘partially overlapping... Read More about Review of the partially overlapping samples framework: Paired observations and independent observations in two samples.

Risk of disclosure when reporting commonly used univariate statistics (2022)
Conference Proceeding
Derrick, B., Green, E., Ritchie, F., & White, P. (2022). Risk of disclosure when reporting commonly used univariate statistics. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (119-129). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-13945-1_9

When basic or descriptive summary statistics are reported, it may be possible that the entire sample of observations is inadvertently disclosed, or that members within a sample will be able to work out responses of others. Three sets of univariate su... Read More about Risk of disclosure when reporting commonly used univariate statistics.

Disclosure risks in odds ratios and logistic regression (2022)
Presentation / Conference
Derrick, B., Green, E., Ritchie, F., & White, P. (2022, April). Disclosure risks in odds ratios and logistic regression. Paper presented at Scottish Economic Society Annual Conference 2022: Special session 'Protecting confidentiality in social science research outputs', Glasgow

When publishing statistics from confidential data, there exists a risk that the statistic might inadvertently reveal confidential information. Statistical disclosure control (SDC) aims to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Most SDC theory is co... Read More about Disclosure risks in odds ratios and logistic regression.

Safety in numbers: Minimum thresholding, Maximum bounds and Little White Lies : The case of the mean and standard deviation (2022)
Presentation / Conference
Derrick, B., Green, E., Kember, K., Ritchie, F., & White, P. (2022, April). Safety in numbers: Minimum thresholding, Maximum bounds and Little White Lies : The case of the mean and standard deviation. Paper presented at Scottish Economic Society, Glasgow

Reporting the sample mean, sample standard deviation and sample size could in some cases lead to the unique identification of the underpinning sample. The likelihood of this reveal via direct enumeration of the possible search space decreases with i... Read More about Safety in numbers: Minimum thresholding, Maximum bounds and Little White Lies : The case of the mean and standard deviation.

uwedragon (2022)
Digital Artefact
Derrick, B. (2022). uwedragon. [R package]

R package for statistical disclosure control. A tool for checking how much information is disclosed when reporting summary statistics.

Ordinal Logistic Regression as an alternative analysis strategy for the comparison of two independent samples (2021)
Journal Article
Bilski, B., Derrick, B., Toher, D., & White, P. (2021). Ordinal Logistic Regression as an alternative analysis strategy for the comparison of two independent samples. Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 16(3),

The two group between subjects design is pervasive with analyses often performed using the Mann Whitney Rank Sum test or using the Welch variant of the t-test. Using simulation it is shown that a dummy variable ordinal logistic regression (OLR) mode... Read More about Ordinal Logistic Regression as an alternative analysis strategy for the comparison of two independent samples.

Statistical inference with paired observations and independent observations in two samples (2020)
Thesis
Derrick, B. Statistical inference with paired observations and independent observations in two samples. (Thesis). University of the West of England. Retrieved from https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/output/3429190

A frequently asked question in quantitative research is how to compare two samples that include some combination of paired observations and unpaired observations. This scenario is referred to as `partially overlapping samples'. Most frequently the de... Read More about Statistical inference with paired observations and independent observations in two samples.

Preliminary testing: The devil of statistics? (2019)
Journal Article
Pearce, J., & Derrick, B. (2019). Preliminary testing: The devil of statistics?. Reinvention: An International Journal of Undergraduate Research, 12(2), https://doi.org/10.31273/reinvention.v12i2.339

In quantitative research, the selection of the most appropriate statistical test for the comparison of two-independent samples can be problematic. There is a lack of consensus in the Statistics community regarding the appropriate approach; particular... Read More about Preliminary testing: The devil of statistics?.

Parametric and non-parametric tests for the comparison of two samples which both include paired and unpaired observations (2019)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., White, P., & Toher, D. (2019). Parametric and non-parametric tests for the comparison of two samples which both include paired and unpaired observations. Journal of modern applied statistical methods : JMASM, 18(1), Article 9. https://doi.org/10.22237/jmasm/1556669520

Samples that include both independent and paired observations cause a dilemma for researchers that covers the full breadth of empirical research. Parametric approaches for the comparison of two samples using all available observations are considered,... Read More about Parametric and non-parametric tests for the comparison of two samples which both include paired and unpaired observations.

An outlier in an independent samples design (2018)
Presentation / Conference
Derrick, B. (2018, September). An outlier in an independent samples design. Paper presented at Royal Statistical Society Conference, Cardiff City Hall, Cardiff, Wales

There is a flaw with some of the most commonly performed statistical tests. A paradox of the one sample t-test is the contrariwise decrease in the p-value as the value of an outlier increases in the direction of the overall effect. Demonstration of t... Read More about An outlier in an independent samples design.

To preliminary test or not to preliminary test, that is the question (2018)
Presentation / Conference
Derrick, B. (2018, July). To preliminary test or not to preliminary test, that is the question

Despite the consequences of violations to the assumptions of statistical tests, there is often neglect in published works to report on the assumptions of the tests performed. Preliminary testing the assumptions prior to preforming the test is done ro... Read More about To preliminary test or not to preliminary test, that is the question.

Tests for equality of variances between two samples which contain both paired observations and independent observations (2018)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., Ruck, A., Toher, D., & White, P. (2018). Tests for equality of variances between two samples which contain both paired observations and independent observations

Tests for equality of variances between two samples which contain both paired observations and independent observations are explored using simulation. New solutions which make use of all of the available data are put forward. These new approaches are... Read More about Tests for equality of variances between two samples which contain both paired observations and independent observations.

The impact of an extreme observation in a paired samples design (2017)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., Broad, A., Toher, D., & White, P. (2017). The impact of an extreme observation in a paired samples design

The effect of systematically altering the value of a single observation within a paired differences design is considered. A paradox is observed for the paired samples t-test, where increasing the value of an observation in the direction of the true m... Read More about The impact of an extreme observation in a paired samples design.

Test statistics for the comparison of means for two samples that include both paired and independent observations (2017)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., Russ, B., Toher, D., & White, P. (2017). Test statistics for the comparison of means for two samples that include both paired and independent observations. Journal of modern applied statistical methods : JMASM, 16(1), 137-157. https://doi.org/10.22237/jmasm/1493597280

©2017 JMASM, Inc. Standard approaches for analyzing the difference in two means, where partially overlapping samples are present, are less than desirable. Here are introduced two test statistics, making reference to the t-distribution. It is shown th... Read More about Test statistics for the comparison of means for two samples that include both paired and independent observations.

Statistics: New t-tests for the comparison of two partially overlapping samples (2017)
Presentation / Conference
Derrick, B. (2017, June). Statistics: New t-tests for the comparison of two partially overlapping samples. Poster presented at Faculty of Environment and Technology Degree Show

This poster presented for the UWE degree show (June 2017), summarises Type I error rates and Power of standard t-tests and a new generalised form of the t-test, for comparing samples which include both paired and independent observations. Material... Read More about Statistics: New t-tests for the comparison of two partially overlapping samples.

How to compare the means of two samples that include paired observations and independent observations: A companion to Derrick, Russ, Toher and White (2017) (2017)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., Toher, D., & White, P. (2017). How to compare the means of two samples that include paired observations and independent observations: A companion to Derrick, Russ, Toher and White (2017). Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 13(2), 120-126. https://doi.org/10.20982/tqmp.13.2.p120

Standard approaches for comparing the means of two samples, comprising both paired observations and independent observations, involve the discarding of valuable information. An alternative test which uses all of the available data, is the partially o... Read More about How to compare the means of two samples that include paired observations and independent observations: A companion to Derrick, Russ, Toher and White (2017).

Why Welch’s test is Type I error robust (2016)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., Toher, D., & White, P. (2016). Why Welch’s test is Type I error robust. Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 12(1), 30-38

The comparison of two means is one of the most commonly applied statistical procedures in psychology. The independent samples t-test corrected for unequal variances is commonly known as Welch’s test, and is widely considered to be a robust alternativ... Read More about Why Welch’s test is Type I error robust.