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Sample and time efficient policy learning with CMA-ES and Bayesian Optimisation (2020)
Conference Proceeding
Le Goff, L. K., Buchanan, E., Hart, E., Eiben, A. E., Li, W., de Carlo, M., …Tyrrell, A. M. (2020). Sample and time efficient policy learning with CMA-ES and Bayesian Optimisation. In J. Bongard, J. Lovato, L. Hebert-Dufrésne, R. Dasari, & L. Soros (Eds.), Artificial Life Conference Proceedings. , (432-440). https://doi.org/10.1162/isal_a_00299

In evolutionary robot systems where morphologies and controllers of real robots are simultaneously evolved, it is clear that there is likely to be requirements to refine the inherited controller of a ‘newborn’ robot in order to better align it to its... Read More about Sample and time efficient policy learning with CMA-ES and Bayesian Optimisation.

Mutual shaping in swarm robotics: User studies in fire and rescue, storage organization, and bridge inspection (2020)
Journal Article
Carrillo-Zapata, D., Milner, E., Hird, J., Tzoumas, G., Vardanega, P. J., Sooriyabandara, M., …Hauert, S. (2020). Mutual shaping in swarm robotics: User studies in fire and rescue, storage organization, and bridge inspection. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 7, https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2020.00053

Many real-world applications have been suggested in the swarm robotics literature. However, there is a general lack of understanding of what needs to be done for robot swarms to be useful and trusted by users in reality. This paper aims to investigat... Read More about Mutual shaping in swarm robotics: User studies in fire and rescue, storage organization, and bridge inspection.

Examining profiles for robotic risk assessment: Does a robot's approach to risk affect user trust? (2020)
Conference Proceeding
Bridgwater, T., Giuliani, M., van Maris, A., Baker, G., Winfield, A., & Pipe, T. (2020). Examining profiles for robotic risk assessment: Does a robot's approach to risk affect user trust?. In Proceedings of the 2020 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. , (23-31). https://doi.org/10.1145/3319502.3374804

© 2020 Association for Computing Machinery. As autonomous robots move towards ubiquity, the need for robots to make decisions under risk that are trustworthy becomes increasingly significant; both to aid acceptance and to fully utilise their autonomo... Read More about Examining profiles for robotic risk assessment: Does a robot's approach to risk affect user trust?.

The impact of affective verbal expressions in social robots (2020)
Conference Proceeding
van Maris, A., Sutherland, A., Mazel, A., Dogramadzi, S., Zook, N., Studley, M., …Caleb-Solly, P. (2020). The impact of affective verbal expressions in social robots. https://doi.org/10.1145/3371382.3378358

This research investigates whether there is an ethical concern in robots misrepresenting their internal state through speech. Participants were asked to discuss their food preferences with a robot, where the robot would either respond through facts o... Read More about The impact of affective verbal expressions in social robots.

Speech related accessibility issues in social robots (2020)
Conference Proceeding
van Maris, A., Dogramadzi, S., Zook, N., Studley, M., Winfield, A., & Caleb-Solly, P. (2020). Speech related accessibility issues in social robots. In HRI '20: ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. , (505-507). https://doi.org/10.1145/3371382.3378379

This work describes an incidental finding from a longitudinal Human-Robot Interaction study that was investigating whether a robot showing emotions during interactions with older adults was perceived differently than to a robot that did not display e... Read More about Speech related accessibility issues in social robots.

"What could possibly go wrong?": Logging HRI data for robot accident investigation (2020)
Conference Proceeding
Winkle, K., Jirotka, M., Lyngs, U., Macrae, C., Webb, H., & Winfield, A. (2020). "What could possibly go wrong?": Logging HRI data for robot accident investigation. In HRI '20: Companion of the 2020 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. , (517-519). https://doi.org/10.1145/3371382.3378296

This abstract presents proposed experimental work to consider what might be required for an 'ethical black box', essentially a robot data recorder, to inform robot accident investigation processes and the implications for HRI.

Designing ethical social robots - A longitudinal field study with older adults (2020)
Journal Article
van Maris, A., Zook, N., Caleb-Solly, P., Studley, M., Winfield, A., & Dogramadzi, S. (2020). Designing ethical social robots - A longitudinal field study with older adults. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 7(1), https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2020.00001

Emotional deception and emotional attachment are regarded as ethical concerns in human robot interaction. Considering these concerns is essential, particularly as little is known about longitudinal effects of interactions with social robots. We ran a... Read More about Designing ethical social robots - A longitudinal field study with older adults.

The ARE Robot Fabricator: How to (Re)produce Robots that Can Evolve in the Real World (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Li, W., Hale, M. F., Buchanan, E., Winfield, A. F., Timmis, J., Hart, E., …Tyrrell, A. M. (2019). The ARE Robot Fabricator: How to (Re)produce Robots that Can Evolve in the Real World. In H. Fellermann, J. Bacardit, A. Goni-Moreno, & R. Fuchslin (Eds.), The 2019 Conference on Artificial Life, (95-102). https://doi.org/10.1162/isal_a_00147

The long term vision of the Autonomous Robot Evolution (ARE) project is to create an ecosystem of both virtual and physical robots with evolving brains and bodies. One of the major challenges for such a vision is the need to construct many unique ind... Read More about The ARE Robot Fabricator: How to (Re)produce Robots that Can Evolve in the Real World.

Toward controllable morphogenesis in large robot swarms (2019)
Journal Article
Hauert, S., Carrillo-Zapata, D., Sharpe, J., Winfield, A. F. T., & Giuggioli, L. (2019). Toward controllable morphogenesis in large robot swarms. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 4(4), 3386-3393. https://doi.org/10.1109/LRA.2019.2926961

Morphogenetic engineering aims to achieve functional, self-organized but controllable structures in human-designed systems. Controlling the structures is crucial if they are to be used for real-world applications. Building on previous work on morphog... Read More about Toward controllable morphogenesis in large robot swarms.

On the simulation (and energy costs) of human intelligence, the singularity and simulationism (2019)
Book Chapter
Winfield, A. F. T. (2019). On the simulation (and energy costs) of human intelligence, the singularity and simulationism. In A. Adamatzky, & V. Kendon (Eds.), From Astrophysics to Unconventional Computation, 397-407. Springer Nature Publishing AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15792-0_16

For many the Holy Grail of robotics and AI is the creation of artificial persons: artefacts with equivalent general competencies as humans. Such artefacts would literally be simulations of humans. With the theme of simulation this essay reflects on b... Read More about On the simulation (and energy costs) of human intelligence, the singularity and simulationism.

Machine ethics: The design and governance of ethical AI and autonomous systems (2019)
Journal Article
Winfield, A. F., Michael, K., Pitt, J., & Evers, V. (2019). Machine ethics: The design and governance of ethical AI and autonomous systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(3), 509-517. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2019.2900622

© 1963-2012 IEEE. The so-called fourth industrial revolution and its economic and societal implications are no longer solely an academic concern, but a matter for political as well as public debate. Characterized as the convergence of robotics, AI, a... Read More about Machine ethics: The design and governance of ethical AI and autonomous systems.

On proactive, transparent and verifiable ethical reasoning for robots (2019)
Journal Article
Bremner, P., Dennis, L. A., Fisher, M., & Winfield, A. F. (2019). On proactive, transparent and verifiable ethical reasoning for robots. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(3), 541-561. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2019.2898267

Previous work on ethical machine reasoning has largely been theoretical, and where such systems have been implemented it has in general been only initial proofs of principle. Here we address the question of desirable attributes for such systems to im... Read More about On proactive, transparent and verifiable ethical reasoning for robots.

Ethical standards in Robotics and AI (2019)
Journal Article
Winfield, A. F. (2019). Ethical standards in Robotics and AI. Nature Electronics, 2(2), 46-48

A new generation of ethical standards in robotics and artificial intelligence is emerging as a direct response to a growing awareness of the ethical, legal and societal impact of the fields. But what exactly are these ethical standards and how do the... Read More about Ethical standards in Robotics and AI.

The Dark Side of Ethical Robots (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Vanderelst, D., & Winfield, A. (2018). The Dark Side of Ethical Robots. In Proceedings of the 2018 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society - AIES '18, (317-322). https://doi.org/10.1145/3278721.3278726

© 2018 ACM. Concerns over the risks associated with advances in Artificial Intelligence have prompted calls for greater efforts toward robust and beneficial AI, including machine ethics. Recently, roboticists have responded by initiating the developm... Read More about The Dark Side of Ethical Robots.

Engineering Simulations as Scientific Instruments: A Pattern Language (2018)
Book
Stepney, S., Polack, F. A., Alden, K., Andrews, P., Bown, J., Droop, A., …Winfield, A. F. (2018). Engineering Simulations as Scientific Instruments: A Pattern Language. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01938-9

This book describes CoSMoS (Complex Systems Modelling and Simulation), a pattern-based approach to engineering trustworthy simulations that are both scientifically useful to the researcher and scientifically credible to third parties. This approach e... Read More about Engineering Simulations as Scientific Instruments: A Pattern Language.

Ethical governance is essential to building trust in robotics and artificial intelligence systems (2018)
Journal Article
Winfield, A. F., & Jirotka, M. (2018). Ethical governance is essential to building trust in robotics and artificial intelligence systems. Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376(2133), https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2018.0085

© 2018 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. This paper explores the question of ethical governance for robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) systems. We outline a roadmap-which links a number of elements, including e... Read More about Ethical governance is essential to building trust in robotics and artificial intelligence systems.

Ethical considerations of (contextually) affective robot behaviour (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Van Maris, A., Zook, N., Caleb-Solly, P., Studley, M., Winfield, A., & Dogramadzi, S. (2018). Ethical considerations of (contextually) affective robot behaviour. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics and Standards. https://doi.org/10.13180/icres.2018.20-21.08.002

The use of social robots can bring many benefits, but raises ethical concerns as well. One of these concerns, emotional deception, was investigated in this research. First, affective robot behaviour is validated, followed by a user study to investiga... Read More about Ethical considerations of (contextually) affective robot behaviour.

Combining opinion pooling and evidential updating for multi-agent consensus (2018)
Presentation / Conference
Lee, C., Lawry, J., & Winfield, A. (2018, July). Combining opinion pooling and evidential updating for multi-agent consensus. Paper presented at Twenty-Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-18)

The evidence available to a multi-agent system can take at least two distinct forms. There can be direct evidence from the environment resulting, for example, from sensor measurements or from running tests or experiments. In addition, agents also gai... Read More about Combining opinion pooling and evidential updating for multi-agent consensus.

Simulation-based internal models for safer robots (2018)
Journal Article
Blum, C., Winfield, A. F., & Hafner, V. V. (2018). Simulation-based internal models for safer robots. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 4(74), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2017.00074

In this paper we explore the potential of mobile robots with simulation-based internal models for safety in highly dynamic environments. We propose a robot with a simulation of itself, other dynamic actors and its environment, inside itself. Operatin... Read More about Simulation-based internal models for safer robots.