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Governing AI safety through independent audits (2021)
Journal Article
Falco, G., Shneiderman, B., Badger, J., Carrier, R., Dahbura, A., Danks, D., …Yeong, Z. K. (2021). Governing AI safety through independent audits. Nature Machine Intelligence, 3(7), 566-571. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42256-021-00370-7

Highly automated systems are becoming omnipresent. They range in function from self-driving vehicles to advanced medical diagnostics and afford many benefits. However, there are assurance challenges that have become increasingly visible in high-profi... Read More about Governing AI safety through independent audits.

Role-play as responsible robotics: The virtual witness testimony role-play interview for investigating hazardous human-robot interactions (2021)
Journal Article
Webb, H., Dumitru, M., van Maris, A., Winkle, K., Jirotka, M., & Winfield, A. (2021). Role-play as responsible robotics: The virtual witness testimony role-play interview for investigating hazardous human-robot interactions. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 8, https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2021.644336

The development of responsible robotics requires paying attention to responsibility within the research process in addition to responsibility as the outcome of research. This paper describes the preparation and application of a novel method to explor... Read More about Role-play as responsible robotics: The virtual witness testimony role-play interview for investigating hazardous human-robot interactions.

Negative updating applied to the best-of-n problem with noisy qualities (2021)
Journal Article
Lee, C., Lawry, J., & Winfield, A. F. (2021). Negative updating applied to the best-of-n problem with noisy qualities. Swarm Intelligence, 15, 111-143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11721-021-00188-4

The ability to perform well in the presence of noise is an important consideration when evaluating the effectiveness of a collective decision-making framework. Any system deployed for real-world applications will have to perform well in complex and u... Read More about Negative updating applied to the best-of-n problem with noisy qualities.

Bootstrapping artificial evolution to design robots for autonomous fabrication (2020)
Journal Article
Buchanan, E., Le Goff, L. K., Li, W., Hart, E., Eiben, A. E., De Carlo, M., …Tyrrell, A. M. (2020). Bootstrapping artificial evolution to design robots for autonomous fabrication. Robotics, 9(4), https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics9040106

A long-term vision of evolutionary robotics is a technology enabling the evolution of entire autonomous robotic ecosystems that live and work for long periods in challenging and dynamic environments without the need for direct human oversight. Evolut... Read More about Bootstrapping artificial evolution to design robots for autonomous fabrication.

Mutual shaping in swarm robotics: User studies in fire and rescue, storage organization, and bridge inspection (2020)
Journal Article
Carrillo-Zapata, D., Milner, E., Hird, J., Tzoumas, G., Vardanega, P. J., Sooriyabandara, M., …Hauert, S. (2020). Mutual shaping in swarm robotics: User studies in fire and rescue, storage organization, and bridge inspection. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 7, https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2020.00053

Many real-world applications have been suggested in the swarm robotics literature. However, there is a general lack of understanding of what needs to be done for robot swarms to be useful and trusted by users in reality. This paper aims to investigat... Read More about Mutual shaping in swarm robotics: User studies in fire and rescue, storage organization, and bridge inspection.

Designing ethical social robots - A longitudinal field study with older adults (2020)
Journal Article
van Maris, A., Zook, N., Caleb-Solly, P., Studley, M., Winfield, A., & Dogramadzi, S. (2020). Designing ethical social robots - A longitudinal field study with older adults. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 7(1), https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2020.00001

Emotional deception and emotional attachment are regarded as ethical concerns in human robot interaction. Considering these concerns is essential, particularly as little is known about longitudinal effects of interactions with social robots. We ran a... Read More about Designing ethical social robots - A longitudinal field study with older adults.

Toward controllable morphogenesis in large robot swarms (2019)
Journal Article
Hauert, S., Carrillo-Zapata, D., Sharpe, J., Winfield, A. F. T., & Giuggioli, L. (2019). Toward controllable morphogenesis in large robot swarms. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 4(4), 3386-3393. https://doi.org/10.1109/LRA.2019.2926961

Morphogenetic engineering aims to achieve functional, self-organized but controllable structures in human-designed systems. Controlling the structures is crucial if they are to be used for real-world applications. Building on previous work on morphog... Read More about Toward controllable morphogenesis in large robot swarms.

Machine ethics: The design and governance of ethical AI and autonomous systems (2019)
Journal Article
Winfield, A. F., Michael, K., Pitt, J., & Evers, V. (2019). Machine ethics: The design and governance of ethical AI and autonomous systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(3), 509-517. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2019.2900622

© 1963-2012 IEEE. The so-called fourth industrial revolution and its economic and societal implications are no longer solely an academic concern, but a matter for political as well as public debate. Characterized as the convergence of robotics, AI, a... Read More about Machine ethics: The design and governance of ethical AI and autonomous systems.

On proactive, transparent and verifiable ethical reasoning for robots (2019)
Journal Article
Bremner, P., Dennis, L. A., Fisher, M., & Winfield, A. F. (2019). On proactive, transparent and verifiable ethical reasoning for robots. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(3), 541-561. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2019.2898267

Previous work on ethical machine reasoning has largely been theoretical, and where such systems have been implemented it has in general been only initial proofs of principle. Here we address the question of desirable attributes for such systems to im... Read More about On proactive, transparent and verifiable ethical reasoning for robots.

Ethical standards in Robotics and AI (2019)
Journal Article
Winfield, A. F. (2019). Ethical standards in Robotics and AI. Nature Electronics, 2(2), 46-48

A new generation of ethical standards in robotics and artificial intelligence is emerging as a direct response to a growing awareness of the ethical, legal and societal impact of the fields. But what exactly are these ethical standards and how do the... Read More about Ethical standards in Robotics and AI.

Ethical governance is essential to building trust in robotics and artificial intelligence systems (2018)
Journal Article
Winfield, A. F., & Jirotka, M. (2018). Ethical governance is essential to building trust in robotics and artificial intelligence systems. Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376(2133), https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2018.0085

© 2018 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. This paper explores the question of ethical governance for robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) systems. We outline a roadmap-which links a number of elements, including e... Read More about Ethical governance is essential to building trust in robotics and artificial intelligence systems.

Simulation-based internal models for safer robots (2018)
Journal Article
Blum, C., Winfield, A. F., & Hafner, V. V. (2018). Simulation-based internal models for safer robots. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 4(74), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2017.00074

In this paper we explore the potential of mobile robots with simulation-based internal models for safety in highly dynamic environments. We propose a robot with a simulation of itself, other dynamic actors and its environment, inside itself. Operatin... Read More about Simulation-based internal models for safer robots.

A two teraflop swarm (2018)
Journal Article
Jones, S., Studley, M., Hauert, S., & Winfield, A. F. (2018). A two teraflop swarm. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 5(FEB), https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2018.00011

© 2018 Jones, Studley, Hauert and Winfield. We introduce the Xpuck swarm, a research platform with an aggregate raw processing power in excess of two teraflops. The swarm uses 16 e-puck robots augmented with custom hardware that uses the substantial... Read More about A two teraflop swarm.

Experiments in artificial theory of mind: From safety to story-telling (2018)
Journal Article
Winfield, A. F. (2018). Experiments in artificial theory of mind: From safety to story-telling. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 5(JUN), https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2018.00075

© 2018 Winfield. Theory of mind is the term given by philosophers and psychologists for the ability to form a predictive model of self and others. In this paper we focus on synthetic models of theory of mind. We contend firstly that such models-espec... Read More about Experiments in artificial theory of mind: From safety to story-telling.

Negative updating combined with opinion pooling in the best-of-n problem in swarm robotics (2018)
Journal Article
Lee, C., Lawry, J., & Winfield, A. F. (2018). Negative updating combined with opinion pooling in the best-of-n problem in swarm robotics. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 11172 LNCS, 97-108. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00533-7_8

© 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. There is a need for effective collective decision making in decentralised multi-agent and robotic systems. This paper introduces a novel approach to the best-of-n decision problem with large n. It utilises nega... Read More about Negative updating combined with opinion pooling in the best-of-n problem in swarm robotics.

An architecture for ethical robots inspired by the simulation theory of cognition (2017)
Journal Article
Winfield, A., & Vanderelst, D. (2018). An architecture for ethical robots inspired by the simulation theory of cognition. Cognitive Systems Research, 48, 56-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsys.2017.04.002

The expanding ability of robots to take unsupervised decisions renders it imperative that mechanisms are in place to guarantee the safety of their behaviour. Moreover, intelligent autonomous robots should be more than safe; arguably they should also... Read More about An architecture for ethical robots inspired by the simulation theory of cognition.

Standardizing Ethical Design for Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Systems (2017)
Journal Article
Winfield, A., Bryson, J., & Winfield, A. F. (2017). Standardizing Ethical Design for Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Systems. Computer, 50(5), 116-119. https://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2017.154

© 1970-2012 IEEE. AI is here now, available to anyone with access to digital technology and the Internet. But its consequences for our social order aren't well understood. How can we guide the way technology impacts society?

Principles of robotics: regulating robots in the real world (2017)
Journal Article
Boden, M., Winfield, A., Bryson, J., Caldwell, D., Dautenhahn, K., Edwards, L., …Whitby, B. (2017). Principles of robotics: regulating robots in the real world. Connection Science, 29(2), 124-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540091.2016.1271400

© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This paper proposes a set of five ethical principles, together with seven high-level messages, as a basis for responsible robotics. The Principles of Robotics... Read More about Principles of robotics: regulating robots in the real world.

Rational imitation for robots: the cost difference model (2017)
Journal Article
Winfield, A., Vanderelst, D., & Winfield, A. F. (2017). Rational imitation for robots: the cost difference model. Adaptive Behavior, 25(2), 60-71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059712317702950

© 2017, © The Author(s) 2017. Infants imitate behaviour flexibly. Depending on the circumstances, they copy both actions and their effects or only reproduce the demonstrator’s intended goals. In view of this selective imitation, infants have been cal... Read More about Rational imitation for robots: the cost difference model.