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BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum (2017)
Journal Article
Sohaib, A., Farooq, A., Smith, L., Smith, M., & Broadbent, L. (2017). BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum. Sensor Review, 37(4), 390-395. https://doi.org/10.1108/SR-11-2016-0258

Purpose: Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new BRDF instruments, however there is still little research available regarding spectral BRDF measurements of human skin. This study aims to investigate the variation in h... Read More about BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum.

Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Farooq, A. R., Smith, L. N., Smith, L., Farooq, A., Smith, M., …Orlando, A. (2017). Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction. International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 13(2), e1761. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcs.1761

Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Background: Remote consultations that are realistic enough to be useful medically offer considerable clinical, logistical and cost benefits. Despite advances in virtual reality and vision hardware and softwa... Read More about Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction.

Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach (2016)
Journal Article
Farooq, A. R., Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach. Sensor Review, 36(3), 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1108/SR-06-2015-0098

© Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose - This paper aims to introduce an unsupervised modular approach for eye centre localisation in images and videos following a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The design of the algorithm aims at ex... Read More about Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach.

Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions? (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Wenhao, Z., Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions?. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 33(3), 333-344. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.33.000333

© 2016 Optical Society of America. This paper seeks to compare encoded features from both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) face images in order to achieve automatic gender recognition with high accuracy and robustness. The Fisher vecto... Read More about Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions?.

Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 33(3), 314-325. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.33.000314

© 2016 Optical Society of America. This paper introduces an unsupervised modular approach for accurate and real-time eye center localization in images and videos, thus allowing a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The trajectories of eye cent... Read More about Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction.

Gender and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction (2016)
Journal Article
Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Gender and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 149, 32-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cviu.2016.03.014

The identification of visual cues in facial images has been widely explored in the broad area of computer vision. However theoretical analyses are often not transformed into widespread assistive Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) systems, due to factor... Read More about Gender and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction.

A photometric stereo approach for chronic wound measurement (2015)
Journal Article
Sun, J., Xu, X., Farooq, A., Smith, L., & smith, M. (2015). A photometric stereo approach for chronic wound measurement. Sensor Review, 35(4), 419-424. https://doi.org/10.1108/SR-01-2015-0018

Abstract Purpose – This paper aims to review state of the art of techniques for dimensioning chronic wounds, and validate the possibilities of employing a new proposed optical imaging approach for general task of wound assessment. Design/methodolog... Read More about A photometric stereo approach for chronic wound measurement.

3D reconstruction of concave surfaces using polarisation imaging (2015)
Journal Article
Sohaib, A., Farooq, A., Ahmed, J., Smith, L., & Smith, M. (2015). 3D reconstruction of concave surfaces using polarisation imaging. Journal of Modern Optics, 62(11), 927-932. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500340.2015.1016130

This paper presents a novel algorithm for improved shape recovery using polarisation based photometric stereo. The majority of previous research using photometric stereo involves 3D reconstruction using both the diffuse and specular components of lig... Read More about 3D reconstruction of concave surfaces using polarisation imaging.

In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric stereo in the presence of interreflections (2013)
Journal Article
Sohaib, A., Farooq, A., Atkinson, G., Smith, L., Smith, M., & Warr, R. (2013). In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric
stereo in the presence of interreflections. Journal of the Optical Society of America A,

This paper proposes and describes an implementation of a novel photometric stereo based technique for in vivo assessment of three-dimensional (3D) skin topography in the presence of interreflections. The proposed method illuminates skin with red, gr... Read More about In vivo measurement of skin microrelief using photometric stereo in the presence of interreflections.

Machine vision 3D skin texture analysis for detection of melanoma (2011)
Journal Article
Warr, R., Ding, Y., Sun, J., Farooq, A. R., Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., …Warr, R. (2011). Machine vision 3D skin texture analysis for detection of melanoma. Sensor Review, 31(2), 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1108/02602281111109961

Pur ose - The ur ose of this a er is to describe innovative machine vision methods that have been em loyed for the ca ture and analysis of 3D skin textures; and the resulting otential for assisting with identification of sus icious lesions in the det... Read More about Machine vision 3D skin texture analysis for detection of melanoma.

Enhanced 3D curvature pattern and melanoma diagnosis (2011)
Journal Article
Warr, R., Zhou, Y., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2011). Enhanced 3D curvature pattern and melanoma diagnosis. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 35(2), 155-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compmedimag.2010.10.004

This article describes an enhanced curvature pattern based melanoma diagnosis system using convolution techniques and ensemble classifiers. We extract the 3. D data of melanoma with a photometric stereo device first. Then differential forms of the me... Read More about Enhanced 3D curvature pattern and melanoma diagnosis.

High speed, multi-scale tracing of curvilinear features with automated scale selection and enhanced orientation computation (2010)
Conference Proceeding
Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., Farooq, A. R., Wedowski, R. D., Wedowski, R., Farooq, A., …Smith, M. (2010). High speed, multi-scale tracing of curvilinear features with automated scale selection and enhanced orientation computation. In W. Smari (Ed.), International Conference on High Performance Computing and Simulation (HPCS), 2010, (410-417). https://doi.org/10.1109/HPCS.2010.5547105

We propose a new high speed line tracing algorithm based on a well known differential geometric line extraction algorithm. The previously separate steps of line detection and line tracing are performed simultaneously. This allows the exclusion of non... Read More about High speed, multi-scale tracing of curvilinear features with automated scale selection and enhanced orientation computation.

Facial geometry estimation using photometric stereo and profile views (2009)
Journal Article
Farooq, A. R., Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Atkinson, G. A., Atkinson, G., Smith, M., …Farooq, A. (2009). Facial geometry estimation using photometric stereo and profile views. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 5558 LNCS, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-01793-3_1

This paper presents a novel method for estimating the three-dimensional shape of faces, facilitating the possibility of enhanced face recognition. The method involves a combined use of photometric stereo and profile view information. It can be divide... Read More about Facial geometry estimation using photometric stereo and profile views.