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Family presence during resuscitation: Validation of the risk–benefit and self-confidence scales for student nurses

Bray, Isabelle; Kenny, Gerard; Pontin, David; Williams, Rachel; Albarran, John


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Issy Bray
Associate Professor in Public Health (Epidemiology)

Gerard Kenny

David Pontin

Rachel Williams

John Albarran


© 2016, © The Author(s) 2016. Background. There is increasing debate about the advantages and disadvantages of family-witnessed resuscitation. Research about the views of healthcare providers depends upon reliable tools to measure their perceptions. Two tools have been developed for use with nurses (26-item cost-benefit tool, 17-item self-confidence tool). Objectives. Firstly, to validate these tools for use with student nurses in the UK. Secondly, to report on the perceived risks and benefits reported by student nurses, and their self-confidence in dealing with this situation. Methods. A sample of 79 student nurses were invited to complete the tools. Item-total correlations and Cronbach’s α were used to determine internal consistency. Factor analysis was computed to assess construct validity. The correlation between the two scales was explored. Results. 69 students completed a questionnaire. Very few had experience of family-witnessed resuscitation. Mean total scores were 3.16 (standard deviation 0.37; range 2.04–4.12) on the risk-benefit scale and 3.14 (standard deviation 0.66; range 1.94–4.82) on the self-confidence scale. Four of the original items were removed from the risk-benefit scale (Cronbach's α 0.86; 95% confidence interval ≥0.82). None were removed from the self-confidence scale (Cronbach's α 0.93; 95% confidence interval ≥0.91). There was a significant correlation between the two scales (r = 0.37, p = 0.002). Conclusions. There is growing evidence that these tools are valid and reliable for measuring student nurses’ perceptions about family-witnessed resuscitation.


Bray, I., Bray, I., Kenny, G., Pontin, D., Williams, R., & Albarran, J. (2016). Family presence during resuscitation: Validation of the risk–benefit and self-confidence scales for student nurses. Journal of Research in Nursing, 21(4), 306-322.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 25, 2016
Publication Date Jun 1, 2016
Journal Journal of Research in Nursing
Print ISSN 1744-9871
Electronic ISSN 1744-988X
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 21
Issue 4
Pages 306-322
Keywords family-witnessed resuscitation, student nurses attitudes, instrument validation, risks and benefit scale, self-confidence scale
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