This chapter provides a critical introduction to the finance and production of independent film and television production in the UK. Film, long considered entertainment rather than art, continues to suffer from low levels of public funding, and the major incentive – tax relief – favours large-scale American productions rather than indigenous ones. By contrast, television, regarded as a public service, has enjoyed far greater financial support and has been globally successful as a result. However, here too SMEs struggle and, if successful, are vulnerable to takeover by ‘super indies’, global entities driven by commercial logic. The chapter critiques the narrow concept of economic success that permeates both these industries and the policy context that surrounds them, and argues for a more culturally ambitious approach that will encourage more diverse and innovative production.