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Towards monolithically printed MFCs: Development of a 3D-printable membrane electrode assembly (MEA)

Theodosiou, Pavlina; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis


Pavlina Theodosiou


Additive manufacturing (3D-printing) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are two rapidly growing technologies which have been previously combined to advance the development of the latter. In the same line of work, this paper reports on the fabrication of novel membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) using materials that can be 3D printed or extruded from the EvoBot platform. Materials such as air dry terracotta, air dry Fimo™ and standard terracotta were tested against conventional cation exchange membrane (CEM) material. The MEA was fabricated by painting the materials with custom made graphite coating. The results showed that the MFCs with the printable materials outperformed those using conventional CEM. Economic analysis showed that the utilization of ceramics-based separator can reduce significantly the overall costs. These findings suggest that monolithically printed MFCs may be feasible, as printable MEAs can improve MFCs performance, and help realise mass manufacturing at lower cost.


Theodosiou, P., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Towards monolithically printed MFCs: Development of a 3D-printable membrane electrode assembly (MEA). International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(9), 4450-4462.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 19, 2018
Online Publication Date Jan 18, 2019
Publication Date Feb 15, 2019
Deposit Date Feb 21, 2019
Publicly Available Date Jan 19, 2020
Journal International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Print ISSN 0360-3199
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 44
Issue 9
Pages 4450-4462
Public URL
Publisher URL
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Additional Information Additional Information : This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published version is available here:


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