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Adaptation and implementation of a shared decision-making tool from one health context to another: Partnership approach using mixed methods

Turnbull, Sophie; Walsh, Nicola E; Moore, Andrew J

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Sophie Turnbull

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Nicola Walsh
Professor in Knowledge Mobilisation & Muscul

Andrew J Moore


Background: Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of pain and disability. Knee osteoarthritis accounts for nearly four-fifths of the burden of osteoarthritis internationally, and 10% of adults in the United Kingdom have the condition. Shared decision-making (SDM) supports patients to make more informed choices about treatment and care while reducing inequities in access to treatment. We evaluated the experience of a team adapting an SDM tool for knee osteoarthritis and the tool's implementation potential within a local clinical commissioning group (CCG) area in southwest England. The tool aims to prepare patients and clinicians for SDM by providing evidence-based information about treatment options relevant to disease stage. Objective: This study aimed to explore the experiences of a team adapting an SDM tool from one health context to another and the implementation potential of the tool in the local CCG area. Methods: A partnership approach using mixed methods was used to respond to recruitment challenges and ensure that study aims could be addressed within time restrictions. A web-based survey was used to obtain clinicians' feedback on experiences of using the SDM tool. Qualitative interviews were conducted by telephone or video call with a sample of stakeholders involved in adapting and implementing the tool in the local CCG area. Survey findings were summarized as frequencies and percentages. Content analysis was conducted on qualitative data using framework analysis, and data were mapped directly to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Results: Overall, 23 clinicians completed the survey, including first-contact physiotherapists (11/23, 48%), physiotherapists (7/23, 30%), specialist physiotherapists (4/23, 17%), and a general practitioner (1/23, 4%). Eight stakeholders involved in commissioning, adapting, and implementing the SDM tool were interviewed. Participants described barriers and facilitators to the adaptation, implementation, and use of the tool. Barriers included a lack of organizational culture that supported and resourced SDM, lack of clinician buy-in and awareness of the tool, challenges with accessibility and usability, and lack of adaptation for underserved communities. Facilitators included the influence of clinical leaders' belief that SDM tools can improve patient outcomes and National Health Service resource use, clinicians' positive experiences of using the tool, and improving awareness of the tool. Themes were mapped to 13 of the 14 TDF domains. Usability issues were described, which did not map to the TDF domains. Conclusions: This study highlights barriers and facilitators to adapting and implementing tools from one health context to another. We recommend that tools selected for adaptation should have a strong evidence base, including evidence of effectiveness and acceptability in the original context. Legal advice should be sought regarding intellectual property early in the project. Existing guidance for developing and adapting interventions should be used. Co-design methods should be applied to improve adapted tools' accessibility and acceptability.


Turnbull, S., Walsh, N. E., & Moore, A. J. (2023). Adaptation and implementation of a shared decision-making tool from one health context to another: Partnership approach using mixed methods. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 25, Article e42551.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 27, 2023
Online Publication Date Jul 5, 2023
Publication Date Jul 5, 2023
Deposit Date Aug 3, 2023
Publicly Available Date Aug 8, 2023
Journal Journal of Medical Internet Research
Print ISSN 1438-8871
Electronic ISSN 1438-8871
Publisher JMIR Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 25
Article Number e42551
Keywords Osteoarthritis, Knee - therapy, mixed methods study, qualitative, treatment, Patient Participation - methods, Humans, Decision Making, Shared, State Medicine, implementation, tool, effectiveness, design, One Health, Decision Making, acceptability, users,
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