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Fault analysis in four-wire distribution networks

Ciric, R. M.; Ochoa, L. F.; Padilla-Feltrin, A.; Nouri, Hassan


R. M. Ciric

L. F. Ochoa

A. Padilla-Feltrin

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Hassan Nouri
Reader in Electrical Power and Energy


The neutral wire in most existing power flow and fault analysis software is usually merged into phase wires using Kron's reduction method. In some applications, such as fault analysis, fault location, power quality studies, safety analysis, loss analysis etc., knowledge of the neutral wire and ground currents and voltages could be of particular interest. A general short-circuit analysis algorithm for three-phase four-wire distribution networks, based on the hybrid compensation method, is presented. In this novel use of the technique, the neutral wire and assumed ground conductor are explicitly represented. A generalised fault analysis method is applied to the distribution network for conditions with and without embedded generation. Results obtained from several case studies on medium- and low-voltage test networks with unbalanced loads, for isolated and multi-grounded neutral scenarios, are presented and discussed. Simulation results show the effects of neutrals and system grounding on the operation of the distribution feeders. © IEE, 2005.

Presentation Conference Type Conference Paper (published)
Publication Date Nov 1, 2005
Journal IEE Proceedings: Generation, Transmission and Distribution
Print ISSN 1350-2360
Publisher Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 152
Issue 6
Pages 977-982
Keywords Kron reduction method, distribution feeders, fault analysis, fault location, four-wire distribution networks, ground conductor, ground currents, hybrid compensation, loss analysis, power flow, power quality, safety analysis, short-circuit analysis
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Additional Information Additional Information : Three-phase, four-wire distribution networks are widely adopted in modern power distribution systems. However, understanding the concept and the performance of a multi-grounded three-phase, four-wire network through a set of mathematical algorithms is new. This type of network provides a higher sensitivity of fault protection than a three-phase, three-wire network.?This work was supported by The Leverhulme Trust and interest was received from EDF Energy UK, with whom a confidentiality agreement was signed in 2005 (Contact: Mr Cliff Walton, now at cre8energy plc, South Kensington).